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Recent Advances in Biotechnology
Oloke Julius Kola, Elijah Adebayo, Yemisi Adesiji, Oke Adefola, Charles Adetunji, Iyabo Ola
Published Date:
August, 2016
Science Publishing Group
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Table of Contents
The Whole Book
Front Matter
Since August 25, 2016
Chapter 1 Efficiency of Cross-Breeding and Mutagenesis in the Development of the New Strains of Pleurotus Pulmonarius
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus Species)
1.3 Genetics and Breeding of Mushroom
1.3.1 Breeding Strategies
1.3.2 Induction of Mutants
1.3.3 Ultraviolet Light (UV) as Mutagenic Agent
1.3.4 Cross Breeding
1.3.5 Protoplast Fusion
1.3.6 Transgenic Breeding
1.4 Importance of Mushrooms
1.5 Nutritional Value of Mushrooms
1.6 Mushrooms as Medicine
1.7 Mushroom Nutriceuticals
1.8 Strain Enhancement
1.9 Strains Collection
1.10 Collection of Data with Genbank Accession Numbers for Isolates of Pleurotus Species
1.11 Mutation and Hybridization Procedure
1.12 Development of Mutant and Hybrid Strains of P. pulmonarius
1.13 Effect of Temperature, pH and Light on the Mycelia Yield of Wild, Mutant and Hybrid Strains
1.14 Statistical Analysis for Mycelia Yield Production
1.15 The Yield Performance of Wild, Mutant and Hybrid Strains of P. pulmonarius
1.16 Spawn Production
1.17 Sporophore/Fruit Body Production (Rice Straw as Substrate)
1.18 Sporophore/Fruit Body Production (Sawdust as Substrate)
1.19 Genetic Diversity Study
1.19.1 Genomic DNA Extraction Protocol
1.19.2 Electrophoretic Separation of Genomic DNA
1.19.3 Spectral Analysis of Genomic DNA
1.19.4 Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
1.19.5 Internal Transicribed Spacer (ITS) DNA Assay
1.20 Sequencing and Phylogenetic Analysis
1.20.1 Quantification and Purification of Genomic DNA
1.20.2 Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) Fingerprint of Hybrid and Mutant Strains of P. pulmonarius
1.20.3 The Phylogenetic Analyses of Mutant and Hybrid Strains of P. pulmonarius Based on Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) 5.8s and 28s Ribosomal RNA Gene
1.21 Conclusion
Chapter 2 Use of Mutagenesis Enhanced Tyrosinase Production from Pleurotus Species and Potential of Natural Polymers in Its Immobilization
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Objective
2.3 Fermentation Technology
2.3.1 Solid Substrate Fermentation (SSF)
2.3.2 Submerged Liquid Fermentation (SLF)
2.4 Enzymes
2.4.1 Classification of Enzymes
2.4.2 Enzyme Kinetics
2.4.3 Production of Enzymes in Filamentous Fungi
2.4.4 Immobilization of Enzymes
2.4.5 Advantages of Immobilized Enzymes
2.4.6 Applications of Immobilized Enzymes
2.4.7 Tyrosinase
2.5 Mushrooms
2.6 Sources of Natural Polymers
2.6.1 Brachystegia Nigerica
2.6.2 Detarium Microcarpum (English Tallow Seeds)
2.7 Strain Selection
2.8 Mutagenesis
2.9 Selection of Organism for Growth in Fermentation Medium
2.10 Preparation of Fermentation Medium
2.11 Extraction of Intracellular Proteins
2.12 Assay of Fungal Strains for Tyrosinase Activities
2.13 Tyrosinase Purification
2.14 Purification of Crude Tyrosinase from Wild-Type and Mutants of P. ostreatus and P. florida Using DEAECellulose-52
2.15 Gel filtration Purification of Crude Tyrosinases from Wild-Type and Mutants of P. ostreatus and P. florida Using Sephadex G-100
2.16 Purification of Tyrosinase from P. ostreatus Wild Type (POW) and Mutant (PO90)
2.17 Purification of Tyrosinase from P. florida Wild Type (PFW) and 30 Minute Mutant (PF30)
2.18 Electrophoresis
2.19 Kinetic Study of Tyrosinase
2.19.1 Effects of Enzyme Concentrations on Activity
2.19.2 Effect of pH on Tyrosinase Activities
2.19.3 Effect of Temperature on Tyrosinase Activities
2.19.4 Effects of Substrate Concentration on Tyrosinase Activity
2.20 Prtreatment of Natural Polymers
2.20.1 Deproteinization of Natural Polymers
2.20.2 Preparation of Crosslinked Natural Polymers
2.21 Tyrosinase Immobilization Procedure
2.22 Comparative Characterization of Immobilized Tyrosinase Using Brachystegia Nigerica, Detarium Microcarpum, Silica Gel and Sodium Alginate
2.23 Conclusions
Chapter 3 Potentials of Staphylococcus Aureus Protein A in Immunotherapy
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Uses and Mode of Action of Immunomodulators
3.2.1 Immunomodulators for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
3.2.2 Immunomodulator as Antibacterial Agents
3.2.3 Immunomodulators for Viral Infections
3.2.4 Immunomodulators in Heat and Cold Stresses
3.2.5 Immunomodulators in the Therapy of Serious Burrns Infections
3.2.6 Immunomodulators in Dermatology
3.3 Synthetic Immunomodulators
3.4 Screening for Immunomodulators
3.5 Staphylococcus Aureus
3.6 Staphylococcus Aureus Resistance to Antibiotics
3.7 Physiochemical and Biological Properties of Staphylococcal Protein A
3.8 Protein A Nature Endowment
3.9 Mechanism of Binding Staphylococcal Protein A to Immunoglobulin G
3.10 Immunomodulatory Properties and Mechanism of Action of Staphylococcal Protein A
3.11 Screening Staphylococcus Aureus for the Possession of Protein A
3.12 Immunomodulatory Effect of Staphylococcus Aureus Protein an Extract in Rats
3.13 Staphylococcus Aureus Protein A in Immunotherapy
Chapter 4 Arcobacters: Emerging Food-Borne and Zoonotic Opprotunistic Pathogens
4.1 Introduction
4.2 The Bacteria
4.3 History and Taxonony
4.4 Cultural Characteristics and Media of Isolation of Arcobacter
4.5 Morphology
4.6 Growth Atmosphere
4.7 Identification of Arcobacter Strains
4.7.1 Identification Based on Phenotypic Characteristics
4.7.2 Biochemical Identification
4.7.3 Serological Identification
4.7.4 Identification Based on Fatty Acid Composition
4.7.5 DNA - Based Identification Methods
4.8 Epidemiological Characterisation of Arcobacter Strains
4.9 Phylogenetic and Genomic Analysis of Arcobacter
4.10 Virulence Attributes of Arcobacter
4.11 Arcobacter and Human
4.12 Mode of Transmission
4.13 Arcobacter in Food Animals
4.14 Water and Milk
4.15 Arcobacters in Fruits and Vegetables
4.16 Antibiotic Susceptibility of Arcobacters
4.17 Epidemiology
4.18 Pathogenicity and Virulence Properties of Arcobacter
4.19 Arcobacter in Poultry
4.20 Arcobacter in Pigs
4.21 Pathogenicity of Arcobacter
4.21.1 Agglutination Study
4.21.2 Cell Culture Study
4.22 Role of Arcobacter in Infertility
4.23 Distribution in Human
4.24 Recommendations, Prevention and Control of Arcobacter
Chapter 5 Advances in Formulation of Multi-Combination Bioherbicides
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Characterization, Production and Evaluation of Phytotoxic Potential from Bioherbicidal Agents
5.2.1 Isolation of Bioherbicidal Isolates
5.2.2 Isolation and Identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
5.3 Isolation and Identification of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae
5.4 Structural Elucidation of Bioactive Compounds from the Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa
5.5 Genetically Improvement of the Biobherbicidal Wild Strain
5.5.1 Exposure of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae to UV Light to Induce Mutation
5.5.2 Exposure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to UV Light to Induce Mutation
5.6 Multi-Combination Formulation of the Bioherbicides
5.6.1 Preparation of Pestal Granules
5.6.2 Various Formulations
5.7 Performance of the Bioherbicides in the Control of Weed in Maize and Cowpea Cropping System as Well as Their Effects on Crop Performance/Yield
5.8 Host Range Test
5.9 Non Target Effects of Various Formulated Bioherbicides on Soil Microorganisms
5.10 Green House Study
5.10.1 Procedures for Data Collection in the Green House
5.10.2 Greenhouse Parameters
5.11 Field Evaluation of Pre-Emergence of Different Bioherbicides in Weed Control in Maize and Cowpea Cropping System
5.11.1 Site Description
5.11.2 Pre-Emergence Effect of the Formulated Bioherbicides on the Field
5.11.3 Weed Morphological Type
5.11.4 Weed Control Efficiency
5.12 Persistence of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the Soil After Application of the Pestal Granules for the Field Studies
5.12.1 Recovery and Enumeration of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae from Soil
5.12.2 Recovery and Enumeration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Soil
5.13 Conclusion
Back Matter
Since August 25, 2016
Oloke Julius Kola obtained a PhD in Microbiology at Obafemi Awolowo University Nigeria; in 1989. He joined the establishment of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology in January 1991 and has been involved in the teaching of several microbiology courses. Between June 1994 and February 1995 he did genetic engineering work on Bacillus thurigiensis at the Biology Department , University of Waterloo; Ontario, Canada. He has supervised over 200 undergraduate projects and more than 20 post graduate thesis. He was promoted to the position of a Professor of Microbiology and Biotechnology in October 1999.

His untiring efforts in research work on Biotechnology was crowned with success when in 2005 he formulated a very effective immune booster known as Trino IB which has been successfully used to managed different immunocompromised patients in different countries. As a result of this feat he was awarded “National Productivity Order of Merit Award” by the former president of Nigeria, Dr Goodluck Jonathan in August 2012. He is presently on a leave with All Saints University at St Vincent & Grenadines where he is assisting with the establishment of Faculty of Science.

Dr. Adebayo obtained his PhD from Ladoke Akintola University of Technology in 2013. He teaches at the Department of Pure & Applied Biology ; Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Nigeria.

Dr. Oke A J obtained his PhD from Ladoke Akintola University of Technology in 2006. He teaches at the Department of Microbiology. Bowen University, Iwo, Nigeria.

Dr. Adesiji Yemisi obtained her PhD from Ladoke Akintola University of Technology in 2011. She teaches at the Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Oshogbo, Nigeria.

Dr. Ola Iyabo obtained her PhD Ladoke Akintola University of Technology in 2013. She teaches at the Biology Department; Ladoke Akintola University of technology; Ogbomoso, Nigeria.

Dr. Charles Adetunji obtained his PhD from Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria in 2015. He works at the Nigeria Stored Products in Ilorin, Nigeria.
This book is written to exhibit the successes of our team in producing novel strains of different microorganisms for solving different human problems using biotechnology techniques.

Description of methods 0f enhancing microbial performance like cross-breeding and mutagenesis are often not specific for a particular organism. Research project students and other researchers at industries often face a lot of difficulties in adopting unspecific experimental protocols for their work. In this book specific experimental protocols for enhancement of microbial performance are accompanied with exciting results. Since these protocols can be reproduced; they could be easily adapted by others for similar projects.

The book will be very useful for teaching post graduate and undergraduate students in universities and other tertiary institutions. Both students and university lecturers will find the book useful for teaching and research. Researchers in different Institutes and Industry will also find the book very useful. In addition; while the book will be useful in providing vital information for Entrepreneurs in business set-up; the book will be of immense benefit for farmers in the area of bioherbicide production.
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