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American Journal of Life Sciences
American Journal of Life Sciences (AJLS) is an international journal publishing articles that emphasize living organisms, like plants, animals, and human beings, as well as related considerations like bioethics. All articles are rigorously reviewed. Articles should be written at a level accessible to readers who are non-specialists in the topic of the article themselves, but who are interested in the research. The Journal welcomes mini-reviews on topics of wide interest to investigators in the life sciences. We particularly encourage submission of brief, focused reviews containing high-quality artwork and require the use of mechanistic summary diagrams.

ISSN:2328-5702 (Print)

ISSN:2328-5737 (Online)

Editorial Board

Lorenzo Caputi
John Innes Centre, Department of Biological Chemistry
Norwich, Norfolk, UK
Maria Jimenez-Movilla
Department of Cell Biology, Medicine School, University of Murcia
Murcia, Spain
Yasutomo Nomura
Department of Systems Life Engineering, Maebashi Institute of Technology
Maebashi, Gunma, Japan
Christos Mammides
Nature Conservation Unit, Frederick University
Nicosia, Cyprus
Majideh Heravi- Karimooi
Department of Nursing (Head of department of Nursing) Research Center of Client Education and Management Health of the Elderly Research Group School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahed U
Tehran, Iran
Erdal Agar
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ondokuz Mayis
Samsun, Turkey
Hanaaa Ahmed
Hormoned Dept., Medical Research Division, National Research Centre
Cairo, Giza, Egypt
Hogan Sherrow
Department of Sociology & Anthropology, Ohio University
Athens, Ohio, USA
Biju Pottakkat
Jawaharlal Institute of PG Medical Education and Research
Puducherry, India
Abdelaal Ahmed
Ain Shams Univeristy-Faculty of Science
cairo, Egypt
Tigran Petrosyan
Department of Exercise Physiology. Armenian State Institute of Physical Education.
Yerevan, Armenia
Sang-Hwan Hyun
College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University
Cheongju, Chungbuk, South Korea
Prasanta Kar
Central Silk Board, Govt. of India
Ranchi, JHARKHAND, India
Thomas Lufkin
Stem Cell and Developmental Biology, Genome Intitute of Singapore
Salvatore Saccone
University of Catania
Catania, CT, Italy
Hector Riveros-Rosas
Depto. Bioquimica, Fac. Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico
DF, Mexico
B. B. Borse
Csir-Cftri, Mysore
Mysore, Karnataka, India
Georgia Andreou
Department of Special Education, University of Thessaly
Larissa, Greece
Toru Shimizu
Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University
Sendai, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan
Simone Beninati
Dept. of Biology University of Rome Tor Vergata
Rome, Italy
Thomas Thekkumkara
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
Amarillo, Texas, USA
Maria Teresa Tomas
Physiotherapy; Sciences and Technologies of Rehabilitation Department; Higher School of Health Technologies at Lisbon; Polytechnique Institut of Lisbon
Lisbon, Portugal
Consolacion Ragasa
Chemistry Department, De La Salle University
Manila, Metro Manila, Philippines
Subbiah Sivam
Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Indiana University School of Medicine-Northwest
Gary, Indiana, USA
Dobromir Enchev
Department of Organic Chemistry and Technology, "K.Preslavsky" University
Shumen, Bulgaria
Andre Talvani
Departament of Biological Science, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto
Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Zou Xiang
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Gothenburg
Gothenburg, Sweden
Maya Guncheva
Institute of Organic Chemistry with Cetre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
Sofia, Bulgaria
Armen Trchounian
Department of Microbiology & Plants and Microbes Biotechnology, Yerevan State University
Yerevan, Centre, Armenia
Haigen Xu
Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection of China
Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
Neeru Sharma
University of Nebraska Medical Center
Omaha, Nebraska, Italy
Gernot Zissel
University Medical Centre, Dept. of Pneumology
Freiburg, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
Iveta Herichova
Comenius University Bratislava, Department of Animal Physiology and Ethology
Bratislava, Slovak Republic, Slovakia
Anastasios Lymperopoulos
Nova Southeastern University
Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA
Josipa Vlainić
Department of Molecular Medicine, Ruđer Boskovic Institute
Zagreb, Croatia
Rinaldo Botondi
Department for the Innovations of Biological, AgriFood and Forestry Systems (DIBAF), University Tuscia Viterbo (Italy)
Viterbo, Italy
Sammia Shahid
Deaprtment of Basic Sciences, School of Science & Technology, University of Management & Technology, Lahore
Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
antonella calogero
Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Medical-Surgical Science and Biotechnologies,I Faculty of Pharmacy and Medicine, Latina, Italy
latina, rome, Italy
Filippo Tempia
University of Torino, Department of Neuroscience
Torino, Italy
Bharat Patel
Mehsana Urban Institute of Sciences, Ganpat University
Mehsana, Gujarat, India
rui gomes
university of minho. school of psychology
braga, Portugal
Mehmet Ensari Güneli
Laboratory Animal Science, Medicine School, Dokuz Eylul University
Izmir, ege, Turkey
Dilip Tambekar
Department of Microbiology, Sgb Amravati University, Amravati 444602 (India)
Amravati, Maharshtra State, India
Shivaji Chavan
School of Life Sciences, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded
NANDED - PIN- 431606, Maharashtra State, India
Karmen Pažek
University of Maribor, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Department for Agricultural Economics and Rural Development
PIVOLA 11, 2311 HOČE, Slovenia
Levi Musalia
Department of Animal Sciences, Chuka University
Chuka, Tharaka-Nithi, Kenya
Raphiq Ibrahim
Edmond J. Safra Brain Research Center for The Study of Learning Disabilities, University of Haifa
Haifa 31905, Mount Carmel, Israel
Ruzena Popovic
Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Nis, Serbia
Nis, Serbia
Hashem Shemshadi
University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences/Department of Clinical Sciences
Tehran, Iran
Dr. Moinuddin Sarker, Phd, Mcic, Ficer.
Natural State Research, Inc.
Stamford, CT, USA
Margarida Vieira
Departmento of Food Engineering, University of Algarve
Faro, Algarve, Portugal
Annamaria Franze'
Institute of Genetics and Biophysics "A. Buzzati Traverso", C.N.R.
Naples, Italy
Ravichandra Potumarthi
Adjunct Research Fellow, Monash University
Melbourne, Vic, Australia
Kadry Abdel Khalik
Sohag University, Faculty of Science, Botany Department
Sohag, Egypt
David Abraham
Cyberinfrastructure Division, Virginia Bioinformatics Institute at Virginia Tech
Blacksburg, Virginia, USA
Dibyendu Kumar
Waksman Institute of Microbiology, Rutgers University
Piscataway, New Jersey, USA
Esperanza Bas
Otolaryngology, University of Miami
Miami, FL, USA
Alexandr Bazhin
Department of General Surgery, University Heidelberg
Heidelberg, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
Carla Cunha
Instituto De Engenharia Biomédica
Porto, Portugal
Jianguo Fan
National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health
Bethesda, MD, USA
Hua Yang
Department of General Surgery, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University
Chongqing, China
Oliver Renner
Experimental Therapeutics Programme (Biology Section), Spanish National Cancer Research Centre, Cnio
28029 Madrid, MADRID, Spain
Monica Gomaraschi
Center Grossi Paoletti, Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Milano
Milano, Italy
Raj Kumar
Department of Basic Sciences, The Commonwealth Medical College (Tcmc)
Scranton, PA, USA
Shengyan Xiang
Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, University of South Florida
Tampa, FL, USA
Bhaskara Reddy Madina
Texas A&M University
College Station, TEXAS, USA
Nikorn Pothayee
National Institutes of Health
Besthesda, MD, USA
Caghan Kizil
German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) Dresden within Helmholtz Association
Dresden, Sachsen, Germany
Hiromitsu Tanaka
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagasaki International University,
Sasebo, Nagasaki, Japan
María Napal Fraile
Dpt. Zoology and Animal Cell Biology. University of The Basque Country
Bilbao, Bizkaia, Spain
Konstantin Chichinadze
1) Department of Pathology, I. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University; 2) Laboratory of Behavior and Cognitive Functions, I. Beritashvili Biomedical Research Center
Tbilisi, Georgia
Dr PremRaj Pushpakaran
School of Bio-Technology, National Institute of Technology Calicut
Kozhikode, kerala, India
Pablo Evelson
Quimica General E Inorganica (Ibimol Uba-Conicet) - Facultad De Farmacia Y Bioquímica - Universidad De Buenos Aires
Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina
Sermin Tetik
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Marmara University
Istanbul, Turkey
Apolonija Bedina Zavec
National Institute of Chemistry
Ljubljana, Slovenia
Mohammed Naim
Deparment of Pathology, Jnmc, Amu
Aligarh, 202002, U.P., India
Hamid El Bilali
Department of Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Rural Development; Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari
Valenzano, Bari, Italy
Mario Santoro
Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Section of Parasitology, Sapienza University of Rome
Rome, Italy
Pascual Medina
Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Valencia
Valenca, Valencia, Spain
Yossi Buskila
Bioelectronics and Neuroscience Research Group, The Marcs Institute, University of Western Sydney
Campbelltown, NSW, Australia
Yu Feng
IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center at TSRI, R&D, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative
La Jolla, California, USA
Daniel Kirienko
Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital
Boston, MA, USA
Eva De Lago
Departament of Biochemistry and Molecular Biolgy, Complutense University
Madrid, Spain
Harianto Tjong
University of Southern California
Los Angeles, CA, USA
Meenakshi Tiwari
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
Patna, Bihar, India
Sandip Bhattacharyya
University of Cincinnati, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children'S Hospital
Cincinnati, OH, USA
Chunxin Wang
National Institutes of Health
Bethesda, MD, USA
Xingliang Jin
Sydney Center for Developmental and Regenerative Medicine, Kolling Institute for Medical Research, University of Sydney
Sydney, NSW, Australia
Xinggui Shen
Pathology, Lsu Health Sciences Center
shreveport, LOUISIANA, USA
Sharda Yadav
National Eye Institute, Nih
Bethesda, MD, USA
Yaqiang Wang
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California Los Angeles
Los Angeles, California, USA
Zhekang Ying
University of Maryland School of Medicine
Baltimore, Maryland, USA
Yulong Fu
National Institutes of Health
Bethesda, MD, USA
Yiqiang Zhang
Barshop Institute for Aging and Longevity Studies & Department of Physiology, The University of Texas Health Science At San Antonio
San Antonio, Texas, USA
Yang Ming
College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University
Yangling, Shaanxi, China
Mladen Davidovic
Retired Professor of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics
Belgrade, Serbia
Zhifei Zhang
Geology Department, Northwest University
Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, China
Patrick Armstrong
School of Earth & Environment, University of Western Australia
Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia
Marco Matteo Ciccone
Cardiology Department, University of Bari
Bari, Puglia, Italy
Hiren Modi
National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda,
Bethesda, Maryland, USA
Maria Angel García
Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital
Granada, Spain
Horng-Dar Wang
Department of Life Science, Institute of Biotechnology and Institute of Systems Neuroscience, National Tsing Hua University
HsinChu, Taiwan
Fatma Galal
Entomology department, faculty of Science, Cairo university
Cairo, Cario, Egypt
Yanfang Rui
Department of Cell Biology, Emory University
Atlanta, GA, USA
Xiukun Lin
Capital Med. University
Beijing, China
Mauro Pessia
Faculty of Medicine & Surgery,Department of Internal Medicine
Hyunjung Ha
Department of Biochemistry, Chungbuk National University, Korea
Cheongju, Chungbuk, South Korea
Marco Redaelli
Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Padova
Padova, Italy
Miguel A. Martin-Acebes
Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa, CSIC-UAM
Madrid, Spain
Yunfu Lin
Department of Biochemistry, Baylor College of Medicine
Houston, Texas, USA
Hem Chandra Jha
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Yuhua Sun
University of Georgia
Athens, GA, USA
Dr. M Awal
I have done my MPhil Leading to PhD from University of Bradford, England, UK.
New York, NY, USA
Ayman EL-Kenawy
Prof. of molecular pathology
Sadat city, Egypt
Sibi G
Indian Academy Degree College
Bangalore, Karnataka, India
Jing He
State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center
Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
Rezaul Karim
Associate professor
Kushtia, Bangladesh
Milan Stankovic
University of Kragujevac, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology and Ecology
Kragujevac, Serbia
Narayan Birasal
KLE Society's G H College Haveri, Karnataka
Soheil Jafari
Department of Aerospace Engineering, Sharif University of Technology
Tehran, Iran
Bin Wu
Ocean College, Zhejiang University
Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China
Ioannis K. Toliopoulos
Konstantinion Research Center of Molecular Medicine and Biotechnology
Thessaloniki, Central Macedonia, Greece
Khaled Rashed
Pharmacognosy dept., NRC, Egypt
Cairo, Menouf, Egypt
Kapil Verma
Department of Genetics, Maharshi Dayanand University Rohtak-124001, Haryana
Rohtak, Haryana, India
Devendra Patel
Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya (a Central University) Bilaspur - Chhattisgarh, India
Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India
Saber Abd-Allah
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Egypt
Beni-Suef, Egypt
Tochukwu Mogbo
Department of Zoology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka
Awka, Anambra, Nigeria
Krishna Kaphle
Department of Theriogenology, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Tribhuvan University
Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal
Abimbola Farinde
cornerstone hospital
Sunday Fadugba
Department of Mathematical Sciences, Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria
Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria
Sanket Patel
St. John's University
Jamaica, NY - New York, USA
Atta ur Rahman School of Applied Biosciences (ASAB), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad Pakistan.
Islamabad, Fedral Capital, Pakistan
Menizibeya Osain Welcome
, International Index Network, Abuja, Nigeria; World Scientific and Engineering Society and Academy, Greece
FCT, Nigeria
Alexander Feher
Department of Sustainable Department, Slovak University of Agriculture
Meiyan Jiang
Oregon Health and Science University
Portland, Oregon, USA
Chirag Patel
Quality Assurance Assistant
Patan, Gujarat, India
Shimane W Shimane W
Botswana College of Agriculture
Gaborone, Botswana
Devanshu Gupta
Zoological Survey of India
Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India
maurilio lara-flores
instituto epomex
Chishimba Mowa
Appalachian State University
C�ndida Tomaz
CICS-UBI Health Sciences Research Centre, University of Beira Interior
Mexico City, Mexico
Beatrice Radu
University of Verona, Department of Neurological and Movement Sciences
Verona, Italy
Sorinel Oprisan
College of Charleston
Charleston, South Carolina, USA
University of Modena and Reggio Emilia
Modena, Italy
Biswaranjan Paital
Indian Institute of Science
Bangalore, Karnatka, India
Rodica Catana
Institute of Biology, Bucharest, Romania
Bucharest, Romania
Abdel-Tawab Mossa
National Research centre
Amirhossein Ahmadi
Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences
Sari, Mazandaran, Iran
Sahayaraj Kitherian
St. Xavier's College, Manonmanium Sundaranar University
Palayamkottai, Tamil Nadu, India
Aliou Balde
Research and Valorization Center on Medicinal Plants - Dubreka / Department of Pharmacy, University of Conakry
Dubreka / Conakry, Low Guinea, Guinea
Nikolaos Drakoulis
National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy
Athens, Zografou, Greece
Kaviarasan Subramanian
University of Texas Medical Branch
Galveston, Texas, USA
Dr javed Intekhab

Barbara Padalino
Department of Veterinary Medicine- Bari University- Italy
Bari, Italy
Javad Sharifi Rad
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 61615-585 Zabol, Iran
Herbert Ugrinowitsch
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Hashimul Ehsan
University of Houston-Victoria
Victoria, TX, USA
Beena Kadakkuzha
Scripps Research Institute
Jupiter, Florida, USA
Vijayasankar Raman
University of Mississippi
Qiang Li
Case Western Reserve University
Valentina Christova-Bagdassarian (Hristova-Bagdassarian)
National Center of Public Health and Analyses
Sofia, Bulgaria
Rajeev Vats
The University of Dodoma, Tanzania
Dodoma, Tanzania
Dr. Rakesh Kumar
Assistant Professor / HOD, Department of Biotechnology and Microbiology, Abhilashi Institute of Life Science, Ner-Chowk, Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, India
Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, India
Palanisamy Arulselvan
Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia
UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Birendra Nath Pandey
Purnea College,Purnea (B.N.M.University)
Claudio Bidau
universidad nacional de misiones
Debajit Kalita
Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, North -Eastern Hill University(NEHU), Shillong, Meghalaya.
Morigaon, Assam, India
Gehan El Akabawy
Anatomy department faculty of medicine menoufia university
Krishnamurthi Kannan
Professor AcSIR, Principal Scientist & Head, Environmental Health Division, CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (Neeri),Nehru Marg (NEERI)
Nagpur, Maharastra, India
Karim Omar
Dr. Ranjith Kumavath
Department of Genomic Science, School of Biological Sciences,Central University of Kerala
Kasaragod, kerala, India
Dr Siddhartha Mishra
Assistant Professor, Department of Zoology School of Biological Sciences Dr. Harisingh Gour Central University
MP, India
Talal Abdulkareem
Assistant Professor in Reproductive Physiology
Duc Tran
International University
Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam
Vishvanath Tiwari
Department of Biochemistry, Central University of Rajasthan
Ajmer,, Rajasthan, India
Sam Masih
SHIATS University
Allahabad, UP, India
Dr.Gopesh Mangal
P.G. Deptt of Panchakarma, National Institute of Ayurveda
Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
Wafaa Ali
Adult Care Department, Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura University, Egypt, Shqraa University Saudi Arabia
Mansoura, Dakhlia, Egypt
Mitra Noori
Arak University
Sreenivasulu Gunti
Experimential Medicine Section, NIDCR, NIH, Bethesda, USA
Hari Kishore Annavarapu
Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Southwestern Medican Center, Dallas, USA.
Mustafa Celik
Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Faculty of Medicine
Kahramanmaras, Turkey
Seher Dirican
Cumhuriyet University, Suşehri Vocational Training School, Fisheries Department, 58600 Suşehri, Sivas, Turkey
Suşehri, Sivas, Turkey
cunye qu
Center for Craniofacial molecular biology/University of southern California
ca, USA
Stefania Mang
School of Agricultural,Forestry, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Basilicata, Potenza, Italy
Basilicata, Italy
Amal Ibrahim
Northern Border University, Ar'ar, KSA, and Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.
Cairo, Egypt
Yanbo Hu
College of Life Science, Northeast Forestry University
Harbin, Heilongjiang, China
Rui Wang
University of Utah, Department of Biology
Salt Lake City, UTAH, USA
Ravi Sajja
Texas Tech UNiversity Health Sciences Center
Amarillo, USA
Gokhan Zengin
Selcuk University
Konya, Turkey
Mehmet Ozdemir
Medical Microbiolgy, N.Erbakan University
Konya, Turkey
Ravinder Kaundal
Immunobiology, Yale School of Medicine
New Haven, CT, USA
Renu Garg
Institute of Microbial Technology
Chandigarh, India
Xuebing Wu
MIT, Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research
Shuiqiao Yuan
Physiology and Cell Biology, University of Nevada, Reno
Nevada, USA
Zakry Fitri Ab Aziz
Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Sarawak Campus
Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia
Geonyzl Alviola
Davao Doctors College
Davao City, Davao del Sur, Philippines
Ahmet Adiguzel
Departmant of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Science Faculty, Ataturk University
ERZURUM, Yakutiye, Turkey
Ahmed Ghoneim
Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Damietta University
New Damietta, Damietta, Egypt
Anirudh Sethi
Postdoctoral Researcher IV, Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
Dallas, Texas, USA
Department of Microbiology, University of Haripur. Haripur, Pakistan
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Nour Eissa
Aquatic Animal Diseases Laboratory, Aquaculture Division, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries
Cairo, Egypt
Sunil Singh
Department of Zoology, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur-273009 (UP), India
Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India
Wei Zhang
Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Xiangya Hospital, Central south university
Hunan, China
Ufuk Çakatay
Department of Medical Biochemistry,Cerrahpaşa Medical Faculty,Istanbul University
Istanbul, Turkey