American Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 3, Issue 6-1, November 2015, Pages: 24-29
Received: Jul. 23, 2015;
Accepted: Jul. 24, 2015;
Published: Sep. 2, 2015
Views 4724 Downloads 158
Ahmed E. Ali, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assiut, Egypt
Mohamed I. Mekhamar, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assiut, Egypt
Ali G. Gadel-Rab, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assiut, Egypt
Alaa G. M. Osman, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assiut, Egypt
A relatively new approach is the use of insects as a source of animal protein in fish nutrition. Houseflies larvae utilise decaying organic waste to produce animal protein and the larvae can be used to produce a meal (magmeal). Interestingly study of the use of magmeal as substitute for fish meal in fish diets have increased in recent times. In the present work, a feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the potential of housefly maggot meal (magmeal) as a protein source for Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus niloticus ). The results of the present study revealed that all the experimental diets were accepted by O. niloticus niloticus. This implies that the different experimental feed ingredients did not affect the palatability of the diets. The good overall growth performances and no mortality obtained in both experimental group of this study confirm the suitability of chosen nutritional composition for tilapia. FCR values below 1 have been reported here, indicating the most efficient utilisation of food by Oreochromis niloticus niloticus . The fish fed on maggot diet exhibited a higher K value compared to those fed on commercial diet. The results suggested that dietary maggot meal promoted the growth of Nile tilapia and enhanced nutrient utilization which is reflected in improved length gain, weight gain, FCR, and SGR. Progressive increment in length gain, weight gain and SGR were observed in maggot meal based diet, recording better growth than commercial based diet, concluding that maggot diet has the best performance. Based on the result obtained from the experiment, it is hereby recommended that 100% maggot meal can be included in the diet of O. niloticus nilotcus to reduce cost and maximize profit.
Ahmed E. Ali,
Mohamed I. Mekhamar,
Ali G. Gadel-Rab,
Alaa G. M. Osman,
Evaluation of Growth Performance of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus niloticus Fed Piophila casei Maggot Meal (Magmeal) Diets, American Journal of Life Sciences. Special Issue: New Horizons in Basic and Applied Zoological Research.
Vol. 3, No. 6-1,
2015, pp. 24-29.
U. U. Gabriel, O. A. Akinrotimi, D. O. Bekibele, D. N. Onunkwo and P. E. Anyanwu, “Locally produced fish feed: potentials for aquaculture,” African Journal of Agricultural Research. Vol. 2(7), pp.287-295, 2007.
G. Biswas, J. K. Jena, S. K. Singh and H. K. Muduli, “Effect of feeding frequency on growth, survival and feed utilization in fingerlings of Catla catla (Hamilton), Labeo rohita (Hamilton) and Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton) in outdoor rearing systems,” Aquaculture Research. Vol. 37, pp.510-514, 2006b.
J. O. Ogunji, M. Kloas, M. Wirth, C. Schul and B. Rennert, “Housefly Maggot Meal (Magmeal) as a Protein Source for Oreochromis niloticus (Linn.),” Asian Fisheries Science. Vol. 21, pp. 319-331, 2008.
J. O. Ogunji, “Alternative protein sources in diets for farmed tilapia,” Animalscience.com Reviews No. 13; CAB International Publishing (Oxford, UK). Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews: Series B 74(8), 23N – 32N, 2004.
A. S. Bharadwaj, W. R. Brignon, Nathan. L. Gould, Paul. B. Brown and Y. V. Wu, “Evaluation of Meat and Bone Meal in Practical Diets Fed to Juvenile Hybrid striped Bass Morone chrysops x M.saxatilis,” J. World Aquacult. Soc. Vol. 33(4), pp.448-457, 2002.
D. P. Bureau, A. M. Harris, D. J. Bevan, L. A. Simmons, P. A. Azevedo and C.Y. Cho, “Feather meals and meat and bone meals from different origins as protein sources in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) diets,” Aquacult. Vol. 181, pp.281-291, 2000
FAO Globefish, “Maket Report. Tilapia,” June 2013. Retrieved from www.globefish.org/tilapia-june-2013.html.
E. A. Adesulu and A. K. Mustapha, “Use of housefly maggots as a fishmeal replacer in tilapia culture: A recent vogue in Nigeria. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Tilapia Aquaculture,” (ed. K. Ftzimmons and J.C. Filho) pp.138–143, 2000. Rio de Janeiro, 3 – 7 September, Brazil.
E. K. Ajani, L. C. Nwanna and B.O. Musa, “Replacement of fishmeal with maggot meal in the diets of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus”. World Aquaculture. Vol. 35, pp.52-54, 2004.
E.A. Fasakin, A. M. Balogun and O.O Ajayi, “Evaluation of full-fat and defatted maggot meals in the feeding of Clariid catfish Clarias gariepinus fingerlings,” Aquaculture Research. Vol. 34, pp. 733–738, 2003.
J. O. Ogunji, W. Kloas, M. Wirth, C. Schulz and B. Rennert, “Housefly Maggot Meal (Magmeal): An Emerging Substitute of Fishmeal in Tilapia Diets,” Conference on International Agricultural Research for Development; Deutscher Tropentag, October 11-13, 2006 Bonn Germany http://www.tropentag.de/2006/ abstracts/full/76.pdf.
J. S. Teotia, and B. F. Miller, “Fly pupae as a dietary ingredient for starting chicks,” Poultry Science. Vol. 53, pp.1830–1835, 1973.
N. Bascnar, E. Cakmak, Y. Cavdar and N. Aksungur, “The effect of feeding frequency on growth performance and feed conversion rate of black sea trout (Salmo trutta labrax Pallas, 1811),” Turkish Journal on Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. Vol. 7, pp.13-17, 2007.
J. D. Balarin and J. P. Hatton, “Tilapia guide to their biology and culture in Africa,” University of Stirling. Stirling, Scotland. pp.174. 1979.
S. S. De Silva and T. A. Anderson, “Fish nutrition in aquaculture,” Chapman and Hall, London, 31 pp. 1995.
J. O. Ogunji and M. Wirth, “Effect of dietary protein content on growth, food conversion and body composition of Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings, fed fish meal diet,” Journal of Aquaculture in the Tropics. Vol. 15, pp.381–389, 2000.
C. O. Olaniyi and B. R. Salau, “Utilization of maggot meal in the nutrition of African cat fish,” African Journal of Agricultural Research. Vol. 8(37), pp.4604-4607, 2013.
J. O. Ogunji, T. Pagel, C. Schulz and W. Kloas, “Apparent digestibility coefficient of housefly maggot meal (magmeal) for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) and carp (Cyprinus carpio),” Asian Fisheries Science. Vol. 22(4), pp.1095-1105, 2009.
E. M. Cabral, M. Bacelar, S. Batista, M. Castro-Cunha, R. O. A. Ozório and L. M. P. Valente, “Replacement of fishmeal by increasing levels of plant protein blends in diets for Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles,” Aquaculture. Vol. 322-323, pp.74-81, 2011.
J. O. Ogunji, J. Nimptsch, C. Wiegand and C. Schulz, „Evaluation of the influence of housefly maggot meal (magmeal) diets on catalase, glutathione S-transferase and glycogen concentration in the liver of Oreochromis niloticus fingerling,” Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Vol. 147, pp.942–947, 2007.
N. N. Begum, S. C. Chakraborty, M. Zaher, M. M. Abdul and M. V. Gupta, “Replacement of fishmeal by low-cost animal protein as a quality fish feed ingredient for indian major carp, Labeo rohita, fingerlings,” J Sci Food Agric. Vol. 64, pp.191-197, 1994.
C. B. Cowey, “Amino acid requirements of fish: a critical appraisal of present values,” Aquaculture. vol. 124, pp.1-11, 1994.
V. G. Jhingram, “Fish and fishes of India (2nd ed.),” Hindustan publishing corporation, Delhi, 727 pp. 1983.
O. A. Fagbenro and I. A. Arowosoge, “Utilisation of agricultural wastes and by-products in fish feeds production in Nigeria,” Proceedings of the 6th Annual Conference of Fisheries Society of Nigeria, Lagos, pp.121-130, 1991.
A. O. Aniebo, E. S. Erondu and O. J. Owen, “Replacement of fish meal with maggot meal in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) diets,” Revista Cientifica UDO Agricola. Vol. 9 (3), pp. 666-671, 2009.
A. B. Idowu, A. A. S. Amusan and A. G. Oyediran, “The response of C. gariepinus (Burchell 1822) to the diet containing housefly maggot, (Musca domestica),” Nigerian Journal of Animal Production. Vol. 30(1), pp.139-144, 2003.
W. O. Alegbeleye, D. F. Anyanwu and A. M. Akeem, “Effect of varying dietary protein levels on the growth and utilization performance of catfish, Clarias gariepinus,” Proceedings of the 4th Annual Conference of Nigerian Association of Aquatic Science Ibadan, Nigeria. pp. 51-53, 1991.
A. A. Akinwande, A. A. A. Ugwumba and O. A. Ugwumba, “Effects of replacement of fishmeal with maggot meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) fingerlings,” The Zoologist. Vol. 1(2), pp.41- 46, 2002.
A. A. Dada and A. A. Akinwande, “Growth performance of Heteroclarias fed maggot meal at varying inclusion levels,” FISON Conference Proceedings 896pp. 2005.
O. A. Sogbesan, A. A. A. Ugwumba, “Growth performance and nutrient composition of Bufo maculata (Linneus) tadpole fed different practical diets as fish meal substitute,” Afr. J. Biotech. Vol. 6(18), pp.2177-2183, 2007.
O. A. Sogbesan, N. D. Ajuonu, A. A. A. Ugwumba, and C.T. Madu, “Cost bene fits of maggot meal as supplemented feed in the diets of Heterobranchus longifilis x Clarias gariepinus(Pisces-Clariidae) hybrid fingerlings in outdoor concrete tanks,” Journal of Industrial and Scientific Research, 3(2): 51-55, 2005.
J. S. Testia and B. F. Miller, “Nutritive content of housefly pupae and manure residue,” Poultry Sci. vol. 15, pp.177-182, 1974.
O. A. Oyelese, “Utilization of compounded ration and maggot in the diet of Clarias gariepinus,” Res J Appl Sci. vol. 2, pp.301-306, 2007.
A. Adenji, “Effect of replacing groundnut cake with maggot meal in the diet of broilers,” Int J Poult Sci. vol. 6, pp. 822-825, 2007.
T. Awoniyi, V. Aletor and J. Aina, “Performance of broilerchickens fed on maggot meal in place of fishmeal,” Int J Poult Sci. vol. 2, pp.271-274, 2003.