Please enter verification code
Determination of Infant and Child Mortality in Kenya Using Cox-Proportional Hazard Model
American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics
Volume 4, Issue 5, September 2015, Pages: 404-413
Received: Aug. 21, 2015; Accepted: Sep. 1, 2015; Published: Sep. 11, 2015
Views 4992      Downloads 137
Daniel Mwangi Muriithi, School of Biological and Physical Sciences, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya
Dennis K. Muriithi, Faculty of Business, Chuka University, Chuka, Kenya
Article Tools
Follow on us
One of the Millennium Development Goals is the reduction of infant and child mortality by two-thirds by year 2015. To achieve this goal, efforts need be concentrated at identifying cost-effective strategies as many international agencies have advocated for more resources to be directed to health sector. One way of doing this is to identify the important factors that affect infant and child mortality. This study is necessary because, Infant and child mortality is one of the most important sensitive indicators of the social economic and health status of a community. This is because more than any other age group of a population, infants and children survival depends on the socioeconomic condition of their environment. This study addresses factors affecting infant and child mortality in Kenya. The main objective of the paper is to determine the effect of socioeconomic and demographic variables on infant and child mortality. Childhood mortality from the, KDHS 2008-09 data, was analyzed in two age periods: mortality from birth to the age of 12 months, referred to as “infant mortality” and mortality from the age of 12 months to the age of 60 months, referred to as “child mortality”. Data from Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS 2008-09) was collected by use of questionnaires, after carrying out a two-stage cluster sampling design. The Cox regression survival analysis was used to compute relative risk of the socioeconomic and demographic variables, on infant and child mortality. The study revealed that the socioeconomic and demographic factors affect both infant and child mortality. The relative risks were higher for infant’s mortality as compared to child’s mortality. The place of birth has the greatest impact on infant mortality. The study recommends policy makers and programme managers in the child health sector to formulate appropriate strategies to improve the situation, of children less than five years in Kenya, by creating awareness on these factors and improving on them.
Infant Mortality, Child mortality, Wealth Index, Cox-Proportional Hazard Model
To cite this article
Daniel Mwangi Muriithi, Dennis K. Muriithi, Determination of Infant and Child Mortality in Kenya Using Cox-Proportional Hazard Model, American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics. Vol. 4, No. 5, 2015, pp. 404-413. doi: 10.11648/j.ajtas.20150405.21
Adetunji, J, A. (1995) “Infant Mortality and Mother’s Education in Ondo State, Nigeria”. Social Science and Medicine; 40(2):253-263.
Arvind P. Minja K. Norman Y. Luther, Damoda S, and Jagdish C. (1998). Infant and Child Mortality in India.
Bhuiyat, A. and K. Streatfield. (1991) “Mothers’ and Survival of Female Children in a Rural Area of Bangladesh”. Population Studies; 45:253-264.
Bicego, G. (1990).Trends, age patterns and determinants of childhood mortality in Haiti. [PhD dissertation]. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University.
Caldwell, J. C. (1979), Education as a factor in Mortality Decline: An Examination of Nigeria Data. Population Studies; 33 (3): 395-413.
Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) [Kenya], Ministry of Health (MOH), and ORC Macro, (2004) Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2008 .Calverton, Maryland: CBS, MOH, and ORC Macro.
Cleland, J. G. and Van Ginneken, J. K. (1988). Maternal education and child survival in developing countries: The search for pathways of influence. Social science and Medicine 27 (12).
Cox, D. R. (1972). Regression models and life tables. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B (methodological) 34 (2): 187–220.
Devlieger, H., G. Mortens and A, Bekaert. (2005). “Social inequalities in prenatal and infant mortality in the northern region of Belgium (the Flanders)’’ European Journal of Public Health; 15(1): 15-19.
Forste, R. (1994). “The Effects of Breastfeeding and Birth Spacing on Infant and Child Mortality in Bolivia”. Population Studies; 48: 497-511.
Hisham, E. M. and Clifford, O. (2008). socioeconomic Determinants of Infant Mortality in Kenya “Humanities and social science.
Gyimah, S. O. (2002) “Ethnicity and infant mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: The case of Ghana.” Population Studies Centre, University of Western Ontario, Canada. (accessed 15/02/2012).
Hessol, D. C. & Gribble, J. N. (2005). Effects of Health Programmes on Child Mortality in Sub-Saharan African. Washington: National Academy Press.
Hill, K., G Bicego and M. Mahy, (2001) “childhood Mortality in Kenya: An examination of Trends and Determinants in the late 1980s to mid 1990s”. pdf (accessed 18/02/2012).
Hobcraft, J. (1993) “Women‘s education, child welfare and child survival: a review of the evidence”. Health Transition Review: 3(2): 159-173.
Hobcraft, J. N., J. W. Mc Donald and S. O. Rutstein. (1985) “Demographic Determinants of Infant Early Child Mortality: A comparative Analysis”. Population studies; 39: 363.
Jansen, Paul K.; Nafula, Nancy; Manda, Damiano Kulundu; Mwabu, Germano; and Kimenyi, Mwangi S. 2002. “A Situational Analysis of Poverty in Kenya”. KIPPRA working Paper No. 6, Nairobi: KIPPRA.
Joshua K. and Jeroen K. Van Ginneken (2009), determinants of infant and child mortality in Zimbabwe, vol21/13 max planck institute for demographic research rostock, Germany. Page 367-384.
Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (2011). Kenya Demographic and Health Survey.
Kramer (1987). Gender differentials in child mortality: A review of the evidence. In Monica Das Gupta, Lincoln Chen, and T. N. Krishnan, eds. Women’s health in India: Risk and vulnerability. Bombay: Oxford University Press.
Lovel, B. R. and J. A. C. Sterne. (1989): “Logistic regression: comparing to or more exposure groups”. Essential Medical Statistics, Second Edition. Blackwell Publishing Company, United Kingdom.
Manda, S. O. M. (1999). Birth intervals, breastfeeding and determinants of childhood mortality in Malawi. Social Science and Medicine 48 (3): 301-312. doi: 1016/S0277-9536 (98) 00359-1.
Madise, N. J. (2003). Infant mortality in Zambia: Socioeconomic and demographic correlates. Social biology. Accessed from, on 18/02/2012.
Madise, N. J., Z.Matthews and B. Margetts (1999). Heterogeneity in child nutritional status between households: a comparison of six sub-Saharan African countries. Popuration Studies 53:331-343.
Mc Elroy, P. D., F. O. Ter Kuile, A. W. Hightower, W. A. Hawlley, P. A. Phillips-Howard, A A. J. Oloo, A. A. Lal and B. L. Nahlen. (2001). All course mortality among young children in western Kenya”. American Journal of tropical Medicine and Hygiene.64:18-27.
Mosley, W. H. and Chen, L. C. (1984). An analytical framework for the study of child survival in developing countries. Population and development Review 10:25-45.
Mturi, A. J. and S. L. Curtis. (1995): The determinants of infant and child mortality in Tanzania”. Health Policy Plan; 10:384-394.
Mutunga, C. J. (2004). “Environmental Determinants of Child Mortality in Kenya”. Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis (KIPPRA), Nairobi Kenya. (accessed 21/02/2012).
Park, K. (2005). “Preventive Medicine in Obstetrics, Pediatrics and Geriatrics”, PARK’S textbook of preventive and social medicine, (18th edition) India: BHANOT (2005); pp414-422.
SPSS (2008). SPSS, Release 20.0. Advanced Statistical Procedures Companion. Chicago: SPSS Inc.
Steve K. Sudhanshu H. and Shu W. N. (2010) “Child Mortality in Eastern and Southern Africa” Volume 49, pp. 8-35.
Troe, M. (2006). Infant Mortality and its underlying Determinants in Rural Malawi (Dissertation). University of Tampere Medical School.
Tulasidhar, V. B. (1993) “Maternal education female labor force participation and child mortality evidence from the Indian census”. Health Transition Review; 3(2): 177-190.
UNICEF. (2006). Levels and Trends in Child Mortality, Report 2006, New York: UNICEF.
UNITED NATIONS (2007). child mortality in developing countries socio-economic differentials. Trends and implications. New York.
Zerai, A. (1996). Preventive health strategies and infant survival in Zimbambwe. African Population studies 11 (1): 29-62.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186