American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics
Volume 5, Issue 6, November 2016, Pages: 387-394
Received: Oct. 15, 2016;
Accepted: Oct. 27, 2016;
Published: Nov. 18, 2016
Views 2776 Downloads 100
Gladys Gakenia Njoroge, Department of Physical Sciences, Chuka University, Chuka, Kenya
Joseph Arap Koske, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya
Jemimah Ayuma Simbauni, Department of Zoological Sciences, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya
Screening experiments are usually performed on mixtures in order to determine the experimental variables that have significant influence on the targeted response. In this study, a screening experiment was carried out on a herbal formulation prescribed by a registered Kenyan herbalist to diabetes mellitus type II patients. The herbal formulation was composed of the following six herbs: Utica dioica, Moringaoleifera, Cinnamomum verum, Azadirachta indica, Momordica charantia and Gymnema sylvestre. The targeted response was the change that had occurred in blood glucose level 2 hours after the herbal drug treatment had been administered to alloxan induced diabetic albino wistar rats. An axial mixture design with replicated centre points was adopted and a first degree mixture model fitted to the data. The axial mixture design was constructed using Design Expert® software with randomly distributed 23 design points positioned on the component axes. The analysis of the data was carried out using the R statistical software environment. The results showed that Cinnamomum verum and Azadirachta indica caused the highest change individually on the blood glucose level among the six herbs. The complete mixture of the six herbs registered the lowest reduction in the blood glucose level. We recommend that the two herbs, Cinnamomum verum and Azadirachta indica, be tested farther to find out the most optimal conditions for their extraction in terms of temperature and time so as to produce a maximum reduction on the blood glucose level. In addition, we recommend that this study be extended to higher animals to establish whether the same patterns would be observed and also obtain the appropriate dosage levels.
Gladys Gakenia Njoroge,
Joseph Arap Koske,
Jemimah Ayuma Simbauni,
A Screening Experiment on a Diabetes Mellitus Herbal Formulation, American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics.
Vol. 5, No. 6,
2016, pp. 387-394.
Agbor, G. A., Kuate, D. and Oben, J. E., “Medicinal plants can be good source of antioxidants: Case study in Cameroon,” Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 10 (4), 537-544, 2007.
Alarcon-Aguilar, F. J., Jimenez-Estrada, M., Reyes-Chilpa, R., Gonzalez-Paredes, B., Contheras- Weber, C. and Roman-Ramos, R., “Hypoglycemic activity of root water decoction, sesquierpenoids and one polysaccharide fraction from Psacaliumdecompositum, in mice,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 69, 207-15, 2000.
American Diabetes Association, ADA, “Standards of medical care in diabetes-2016,” Diabetes Care, 39 (suppl 1), S1- S106, 2016.
American Diabetes Association, “Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus,” Diabetes Care, 34 (suppl 1), S62- S69, 2011.
Chang, C. L. T., Lin, Y., Bartolome, A. P., Yi-Ching, C., Shao-Chih, C. & Wen-Chin, Y., “Herbal therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus: Chemistry, Biology and potential application of selected plants and compounds,” Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine-33-Article ID 378657.http://dxdoi.org /10.1155/2013/378657, 2013.
Cornell, J. A., Experiments with Mixtures: designs, models and the analysis of mixture data, 3rdEdition,New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc,2002.
Cornell, J. A., Experiments with Mixtures: Designs, Models and the Analysis of Mixture Data, 2ndEdition,New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 1990.
Design-Expert® User’s Guide, Split-plot Tutorial, Stat-Ease, Inc. Minneapolis, 2016.
Design-Expert® Software Version 10, State-Ease Inc, Minneapolis, 2016.
Dwivedi, C., Daspaul, S., “Antidiabetic herbal drug and polyherbal formulation used for diabetes: a review,” Journal of Phytopharmacology,2(3), 44-51, 2013.
Goos, P. and Bradley, J., Optimal Design of Experiments: A Case Study Approach, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2011.
International Diabetes Federation, IDF Diabetes Atlas, 7th Edition, 2015.
Kolthoff, I. M., Getting started with v10 of Design-Expert Software, Stat- Ease, Inc. Minneapolis, 2016.
Matheka, D. M. and Alkizim, F. O., “Complementary and alternative medicine for type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Role of medicinal herbs,” Journal of Diabetes and Endocrinology, 3(4), 44-56, 2012.
Mcferran, L., “Obstacles to diabetes care in Kenya,”Medical Journal of Therapeutics Africa, 2(2), 127-129, 2008.
Odey, M. O., Iwara, I. A., Ubiba, U. U., Johnson, J. T., Inekwe, U. V., Asenye, M. E. and Victor, O.,“Preparation of Plant Extracts from indigenous medicinal plants,”International Journal Science and Technology, 1 (12), 688-692, 2012.
Ozougwu, J. C., Obimba, K. C., Belonwu, C. D. and Unakalamba, C. B., “The pathogenesis and phathophysiology of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Journal of Physiology and Pathophysiology, 4(4), 46-57, 2013.
Reagan, S. S., Nihal, M. and Ahmad, N.,“Dose translation from animal to human studies revisited,”The FASEB Journal, 22(3), 659-661, 2007.
Sangal, A.,“Role of Cinnamon as beneficial ant diabetic food Adjunct: a review,” Advances in Applied Sciences Research, 2(4), 440-450, 2011.
Shaw, J. E., Sicree, R. A. andZimmet, P.Z.,“Global estimates of the prevalence of Diabetes for 2010 and 2030,”Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 87(1), 4-14, 2010.
Shin, J-W., Seol, I-C. and Son, C-G.,“Interpretation of animal dose and human equivalent dose for drug development,”The Journal of Korean Oriental Medicine, 31(3), 1-7, 2010.
Snee, R. D. and Marquardt, D. W.,“Screening concepts and designs for experiments with mixtures,”Technometrics, 18(1), 19-29, 1976.
Vine, A. E.,“Two-stage group screening”, PhD thesis, school of Mathematics, Faculty of Engineering Science and Mathematics; University of Southampton, 2004.
Weese, M.,“A new screening methodology for mixture experiments”, PhD diss., University of Tennessee, Knoxville, 2010.
World Health Organization, Global report on diabetes, Geneva, Switzerland, 2016.
World Health Organization, Kenya country cooperation strategy at a glance, Geneva, Switzerland,2014http://www.who.int/countryfocus/cooperation_strategy/ccsbrief_ken_en.pdf.
World Health Organization, WHO traditional medicine strategy 2014-2023, Geneva, Switzerland, 2013.