Prevalence and Intensity of Soil-Transmitted Helminths Among School-Aged Children in Sigmo Primary School, Jimma Zone, South-Western Ethiopia
Clinical Medicine Research
Volume 4, Issue 4, July 2015, Pages: 98-103
Received: May 28, 2015;
Accepted: Jun. 10, 2015;
Published: Jun. 25, 2015
Views 4521 Downloads 173
Daniel Emana, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia
Kalid Jemal, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia
Mitiku Bajiro, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia
Zeleke Mekonnen, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia
Background: School-aged children have been identified as high risk group of population to be infected with soil- transmitted helminths (STH) in developing countries. Although, there were previous reports concerning the prevalence; but limited data are available with regards to intensity of the STH. Therefore, the objective of current study was to assess the prevalence and intensity of STH and associated risk factors among school-aged children at Sigmo primary school. Method: Cross-sectional study design was conducted from March-April 2015, at Sigmo primary school children, Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. Study subjects were selected from grade 1-8 with in age groups between 5-18 yrs old with multistage sampling techniques. The demographic and risk factor analysis data were collected by using pre-tested and structured questionnaires from parents/guardian or teachers of the children. Prevalence and intensity of STH were determined by using Kato-Katz thick smear techniques. Student’s data were analyzed by SPSS version 20 software package, both logistic regression and chi-square statistical analysis approaches were applied. Results: Out of 330 calculated sample sizes, 302 were participated in the study. The overall prevalence of STH was 41.7%. A. lumbricoides was the predominant parasite (19.8%) followed by T. trichiura (15.6%). In logistic regression, latrine usage (AOR: 1.77, 95% CI, 1.09-2.87, P=0.020), habit of hand washing before meal (AOR=1.776, 95% CI, 1.098-2.871, P=0.019) and habit of hand washing after toilet (AOR=1.595, 95% CI, 1.005-2.531, P=0.048) were predictor of STH infections in the study area. Regarding sex as possible risk factor, male children were infected more than female children, but not statistical significant. Overall infection intensity of A. lumbricoides in the study area was (20.2%), T. trichiura (16.9%) and hookworm was (1.67%), respectively. Conclusion: Prevalence of STHs in the study area was quite high and calls for at least annual mass drug administration in addition to prompting preventive actions like health education, personal hygiene and provision of clean water in the study area.
Prevalence and Intensity of Soil-Transmitted Helminths Among School-Aged Children in Sigmo Primary School, Jimma Zone, South-Western Ethiopia, Clinical Medicine Research.
Vol. 4, No. 4,
2015, pp. 98-103.
WHO, Control of tropical diseases. . WHO, Geneva. 1998.
WHO, Soil transmitted helminths. Fact sheet. 2014; p. p. 366.
Alemu A, Asmamaw A, Addis Z, Shiferaw Y, Teklu T, Mathewos B, Wubet B, Simon G, Baye G, Soil transmitted helminths and schistosoma mansoni infections among school children in Zarima town, northwest Ethiopia. BMC infectious diseases. 2011. 11(1): p. 189.
WHO, Deworming for health and development: report of the Third Global Meeting of the Partners for Parasite Control. 2005.
WHO, The prevention and control of schistosomiasis and soil transmitted Helminthiasis.Geneva, World health organization.2002.
Dana D, Zeleke M, Daniel E, Miyo A, Mestawet G, Netsanet W, Josef V, Bruno L. Prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections among pre-school age children in 12 kindergartens in Jimma Town, southwest Ethiopia. Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2014; p. tru178.
Getachew M, Tafesse K, Zeynudin A, Yewhalaw D, Prevalence Soil Transmitted Helminthiasis and malaria co-infection among pregnant women and risk factors in Gilgel Gibe dam Area, Southwest Ethiopia. BMC research notes. 2013; 6(1): p. 263.
Quihui-Cota L, Valencia M.E, Crompton D.W.T, Philips S, Diaz Camacho S.P, Triana Tejas A. Prevalence and intensity of intestinal parasitic infections in relation to nutritional status in Mexican schoolchildren. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2004; 98: p. 5.
Khanal L, Choudhury DR, Rai SK, Sapkota J, Barakoti A, Amatya R, Hada S. Prevalence of intestinal worm infestations among school children in Kathmandu, Nepal. Nepal Med Coll J. 2014; 13(4): p. 272-274.
Leykum., J., comparative prevalence some common intestinal helminthes infection in different attitudinal region in Ethiopia. EMJ. 1998; 36(1): p. 8-11.
Gyorkos, T.W., et al., Trichuris and hookworm infections associated with anaemia during pregnancy. Tropical Medicine & International Health.2011; 16(4): p. 7.
Degarege A, E.B. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Children under Five Years of Age with Emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate, Ethiopia. PLoS One. 2014; 9(10): p. e109793.
Jayarani, K., T. Sandhya Rani, and K. Jayaranjani, Intestinal parasitic infections in pre school and school going children from rural area in Puducherry. Current Research in Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2014; 2(4): p. 406-409.
Mengistu M, S.T., Torben W, Terefe A, Kassa T, Hailu A:, Human intestinal schistosomiasis in communities living near three rivers of Jimma town, south Western Ethiopia. Ethiopian journal of health sciences. 2011; 21(2): p. 111-118.
Montresor A, C.D., Hall A, Bundy DAP,Savioli L,. Guidelines for the evaluation of soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis at community level. Geneva: World Health Organization.1998; p. 1-48.
USAID/ETHIOPIA, End of the Project Evaluation for the Urban Health Extension Program. online. 2014.
Yami A, M.Y., and Kebede S. , Prevalence and predictors of intestinal helminthiasis among school children in jimma zone; a cross-sectional study. Ethiopian journal of health sciences. 2011; 21(3).
Rim HJ, C.J., Min DR, Cho SY, Eom KS, Hong SJ, et al.,, Prevalence of intestinal parasite infections on a national scale among primary schoolchildren in Laos. Parasitology research. 2003; 91(4): p. 267-272.
Sayyari AA, I.F., Bagheri Yazdi SA, Karami H, Yaghoobi M,. , Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in the Islamic Republic of Iran. 2005.
Tadesse D, T.A., Impact of irrigation on the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections with emphasis on schistosomiasis in Hintallo-Wejerat, North Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Health Science. 2008; 18(2): p. 6.
Marothi Y, S.B., Prevalence of intestinal parasites at Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh, India: Five-year study. Afr J Microbiol Res. 2011; 5(18): p. 2711-2714.
Chhakda T, M.S., Socheat D, Odermatt P., Intestinal parasites in school-aged children in villages bordering Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia. Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health. 2006; 37(5): p. 859.
Fekadu D, B.P., Amha K. , Hookworm species distribution among school children in Asendabo Town, Jimma Zone, South West Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Health Science. , 2008. 18: p. 4.
Serkadis D, A.W., Nejat J, Zeleke M., Soil transmitted helminths and associated factors among schoolchildren in government and private primary school in Jimma town, southwest Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Sciences. 2013; 23(3).
Megbaru Al, A.H, Gessessew B. , Prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminthiasis among primary school children in Umolante district, South Ethiopia. Clinical Medicine Research. 2014; 3(6): p. 7.
Abate, A., et al., Cross-Sectional Study on the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Associated Risk Factors in Teda Health Centre, Northwest Ethiopia. ISRN Parasitology, 2013. 2013.
Asrat A, T.D., Alemayehu W,, Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasites among Delgi school children, North Gondar, Ethiopia. Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology. 2011; 3(5): p. 6.
Zeleke M, S.M., Mio A, Johannes B, Josef V, Bruno L. , Comparison of individual and pooled stool samples for the assessment of soil-transmitted helminth infection intensity and drug efficacy. . PLoS neglected tropical diseases. 2013; 7(5).