Development and Nutritional Evaluation of Infant Complementary Food from Maize (Zea Mays), Soybean (Glycine Max) and Moringa Oleifera Leaves
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 3, Issue 4, July 2014, Pages: 290-299
Received: Jun. 26, 2014; Accepted: Jul. 3, 2014; Published: Jul. 20, 2014
Views 3631      Downloads 315
Nwosu Odinakachukwu I. C., Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Ituku/Ozalla, Enugu State, Nigeria
Nnam Ngozi N., Department of Home Science, Nutrition and Dietetics, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
Ibeziako Ngozi, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria Enugu Campus, Enugu State, Nigeria
Maduforo Aloysius N., Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, PMAN International Health Services, Abuja FCT, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Aims: This study developed and evaluated infant complementary food made from locally available foods to which was feed to infants 6-12 months of age. The study was aimed to: develop infant complementary food from yellow maize (Zea mays), soybean (Glycine max) and green leafy vegetables (Moringa oleifera), determine the nutrient composition of the complementary food, determine the acceptability of the food and determine the nutritional quality of the infant complementary food in children. Study Design: The study made use of both food samples and human samples. It investigated the nutrient content of the diet blend and conducted a test trial with children. Methodology: All the food materials were milled into fine flours. The proximate, energy, mineral and β-carotene contents of the flours were determined using standard methods. The flours were used to develop 2 blends in ratios of 60:40 (control) and 60:30:10 (test) maize + soybean and maize + soybean + Moringa oleifera leaves respectively. The 2 blends provided 10% protein. The blends were used to prepare gruels whose sensory evaluation was conducted using 30 mothers. The gruels were fed to 2 groups of infants in the Holy Child Motherless Babies Home in Enugu for 12 weeks. Result: Protein (15. 15% vs 11.36.2) and carbohydrate (47.15% vs 55.73%) of the blends differed (P<0.05). Ash, fat, crude fiber and energy of both blends were comparable (P>0.05). The Iron and zinc contents of the blends were similar (P>0.05). β-carotene and calcium of the test blend were higher (P<0.05) than that of control blend. The blends had comparable (P>0.05) flavor, texture and acceptability, however, it differed in colour (P<0.05). The body weight of the subjects increased significantly (P<0.05) after feeding the test diet. Length, head circumference and chest circumference increased slightly (P>0.05) in the 2 groups after feeding. Haemoglobin (Hb) was higher (12.34% vs 8.96%) in the group fed test blend and unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC) and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) increased much more in the subjects fed control blend. Conclusion: Moringa oliefera fortification of the infant complementary food improved the nutrient quality. Shade-dried Moringa oleifera leaves had good nutrient profile and general acceptability. Incorporation of pulverized Moringe oleifera leaves in infants’ food could diversity food intake, ensure food and nutrition security.
Development, Nutritional Evaluation, Infant, Complementary Food, Zea Mays, Glycine Max, Moringa Oleifera Leaves
To cite this article
Nwosu Odinakachukwu I. C., Nnam Ngozi N., Ibeziako Ngozi, Maduforo Aloysius N., Development and Nutritional Evaluation of Infant Complementary Food from Maize (Zea Mays), Soybean (Glycine Max) and Moringa Oleifera Leaves, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. Vol. 3, No. 4, 2014, pp. 290-299. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20140304.19
WHO(2001) The optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding: report of an expert consultation (WHO/FCH/CAH/01.24) Geneva: March 2001.
UNICEF (2001) Critical control points of complementary food preparation and handling in Eastern Nigeria. Nutrition paper of the month. May 2001.
Asindi, A.A., Ibia, E.O. & Udo, J.J. (1990). Mortality among Nigerian children. Tropical medical Hygiene, 94, 152-155 copyright 2004 from 04030
Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (2003). National Population Commission Federal Republic of Nigeria Abuja, Nigeria. MEASURE DHS, ICF Macro Calverton, Maryland, USA.
Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (2008). National Population Commission Federal Republic of Nigeria Abuja, Nigeria. MEASURE DHS, ICF Macro Calverton, Maryland, USA,
UNICEF (1998). State of the world children. Oxford University Press Limited. Pp 8-24.
Dewey, K.G. and Brown, K.H. (2003), Update on technical issues concerning complementary feeding of young children in developing countries and implications for intervention programmes. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 24, 5-28.
WHO (2003). Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. Report of a Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultative Geneva. 28 January-1 February
WHO (2002): Global forum for child health research; a foundation for improving child health. Switzerland, Geneva 2002. Retrieved May, 2004 from
WHO(1998). Complementary Feeding of young children in developing countries: A review of current scientific knowledge. World Health Organization (WHO) Geneva, P.80
Jakarta (2005). Result of a Nutrition survey on Nias and Simeulue Islands, February, 2005.
ACC/SCN (United Nations Administrative Committee on coordination- subcommittee on Nutrition) (2000). Fourth report on the World Nutrition Situation. ACC/SCN in collaboration with the International Food Policy Research Institute, Geneva, Switzerland.
WHO(2000) Complementary feeding, family foods for breast-fed children. Department of Nutrition for Health and Development WHO. 1-7
WHO(2001) The optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding: report of an expert consultation (WHO/FCH/CAH/01.24) Geneva: March 2001.
Ibeanu, V. and Obizoba, I. C. (2004). Consumption profile of fermented and germinated Foods in Anambara and Enugu states and the effect of ARF on complementary gruel formulations. Research in the department Home Science, Nutrition and Dietetics, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Nigeria.
Nnam, N.M. (1994). Effects of village processing methods on the nutritional value of African Yam bean and cowpea flours. African Indigenous Technology, 9, 87-93.
Nnam, N. M. (1998). Nitrogen and mineral utilization of young children fed blends of fermented or unfermented corn (Zea mays L.) African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), Ecology of Food Nutrition 38, 21-34.
Nnam, N.M. (2000). Chemical Evaluation of Multimixes formulated from some local staples for use as complementary foods in Nigeria. Plant Food for Human Nutrition, 55, 255-263.
Nnam, N.M. (2001). Comparison of the protein nutritional value of food blends based on sorghum, bambara groundnut and sweet potatoes. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, 52, 25-29.
Nnam, N.M. (2002). Evaluation of complementary food based on maize, groundnut, pawpaw and mango flour blends. Nigerian Journal of Nutrition Sciences 23(182): 8-16.
Obizoba, I.C. (1989). Nutritive quality of blends of corn with germinated cowpea (Vigna unguicculata), pigeon pea, (Cajanus cajan), and bambara groundnut (Voandzia subterranean). Cereal Chemistry, 67, 230-232
Asma, M.A. Babikar, E., Fadil, E.L. & Abdullahi, H.T.. (2006). Development of weaning food from sorghum supplemented with legumes and oil seeds. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 27:1.
A.O.A.C.(1995). Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official methods of analysis 15th ed. Washington DC, U.S.A pg 40-49.
A.O.A.C.(2005). Official Methods of Analysis, Association of official Analytical Chemistry, 16th ed. Washington DC, U.S.A. p.19
A.A.C.C. (1992) Journal of American Association of Cereal chemistry approval methods 3: 222
Ranjiham, S.K. and Gapal, K. (1980). Wet Chemical digestion of biological materials for mineral analysis. In: Laboratory Manual for Nutrition Research (pp.83-84) New Delhi: Vikas publishing House
Kleinman, R.E. (2009). Calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. In: Pediatric Nutrition Handbook. 6th ed. Kleinman. American Academy of Pediatrics, pp.387-401.
Dacie, J. V. and Lewis, S. M. (1984). Practical Haematology. Sixth edition. Churchill Livingstone Longmans Singapore Publishers Limited.
Yadan, S. and Kheterpaul, N. (1994). Indigenous legume fermentation: Effect of anti-nutrients and in-vitro digestibility of starch and protein. Journal of food Chemistry, 50,403-406.
Steinkraus, K.H., Pederson, C.S., Nellis, L.F. and Cullen, R.E. (1995): Hand book of indigenous fermented foods. Marcel. Dekar inc. New York.
Lartey, A., Manu, A., Brown, K.H., Pearson, J.M. & Dewey (1999). A randomized community- based trial of the effect of improved centrally processed complementary foods on the growth and micronutrient status of Ghanian infants from 6-12 months of age. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70,391-404.
Onuoha, N. O. and Okeke C. (2007). Development of low cost micronutrient-rich complementary foods based on locally available food commodities and commonly consumed diets. Ph.D thesis, University of Nigeria Nsukka: Nigeria.
Nesamvuni, A.E., Vorster, H.H., Margatts, B.M. and Kruger, A (2005). Fortification of maize meal improved nutritional status of 1-3 years old children. Public Health Nutrition, 8, 461-467.
West, K.P., Leclerg, S.C., Shrestha, S.R., Wu, L.S., Pradham, F.K. & Khartry, S.K. (1997). Effects of vitamin A on growth of vitamin A deficient children: Field studies in Nepal. Journal of Nutrition, 127, 1957-1965.
Akinyele, I.O. (2002). Calcium contents of Nigerian foods. Nutritional rickets in Nigeria Children: The way forward. Nestle Nutrition pp 63-65.
Northrop – Clewes, (1999). Vitamin A and other micronutrients: Biological interactions and integrated interventions. IVACG. Sight and Life Newsletter 2, 3-26.
Brown, K.H., Allen, L.H. & Dewey, K.G. (1997). Complementary feeding of young children in developing countries. A review of current scientific knowledge WHO/UNICEF forthcoming, 1997.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186