Hypolipidaemic Effect of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Moringa Oleifera Lam. in Experimentally induced Hypercholesterolemic Wistar Rats
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 3, Issue 4, July 2014, Pages: 355-360
Received: Jul. 16, 2014; Accepted: Aug. 9, 2014; Published: Aug. 20, 2014
Views 3094      Downloads 253
Authors
Denen Atsukwei, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Bingham University, Karu, Nasarawa State, Nigeria
Ejike Daniel Eze, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Bingham University, Karu, Nasarawa State, Nigeria
Moses Dele Adams, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Bingham University, Karu, Nasarawa State, Nigeria
Seriki Samuel Adinoyi, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Bingham University, Karu, Nasarawa State, Nigeria
Chiamaka Nnenna Ukpabi, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Bingham University, Karu, Nasarawa State, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
The hypolipidaemic effect of ethanol leaf extract of Moringa oleifera in experimentally induced hypercholesterolemic rats was investigated. Thirty six (36) wistar rats of both sexes weighing 130.53±4.86 were used for the study. The animals were completely randomized into six groups (A-F) comprising 6 animals each. Groups A, B and C comprise female rats administered 1 ml of distilled water, high dose of 600 mg/kg and low dose of 300 mg/kg body weight of the extract respectively. Groups D, E and F comprise male rats administered 1 ml of distilled water, high dose of 600 mg/kg and low dose of 300 mg/kg body weight of the extract respectively. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding the animals with high fat diet for 21 days before administration of the extract. After the 21 days of feeding, administration of extract lasted for 14 days. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed that the ethanol leaf extract of M. oleifera contains alkaloids, tannins, carbohydrates and cardiac glycosides. Only the high dose female group (600 mg/kg body weight) lost or maintained their body weight significantly (p<0.05), the rest did not. Body weight was not significantly (p>0.05) altered in the male group administered low dose and high dose, showing that the dose of the extract slightly affected their weight. For serum lipids, serum total cholesterol concentration in both male and female reduced significantly (p<0.05), both in those given low and high doses of the extract. Serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) level significantly (p<0.05) increased both in male and female rats that were administered high dose of 600 mg/kg body weight of the extract, but was not significantly (p>0.05) affected in other groups. Serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) level also reduced significantly (p<0.05) in both male and female rats that were administered high dose of the extract, but was not significantly (p>0.05) altered for those that received low doses (300 mg/kg body weight) of the extract. There was no significant (p>0.05) reduction in the LDLC of the male rats. Serum triacylglycerol (TAG) concentration in male and female rats reduced significantly (p<0.05), in those that received low and high doses of the extract. Overall, findings from the present study suggest that the ethanol leaf extract of M. oleifera has hypolipidaemic effect. Therefore, the leafy vegetable may be recommended to patients that have problems with high serum lipid profiles and also for people that want to lose or maintain body weight.
Keywords
Moringa Oleifera, Body Weight, High Fat Diet, Hypercholesterolemia, Serum Lipid, Hypolipidaemic Effect
To cite this article
Denen Atsukwei, Ejike Daniel Eze, Moses Dele Adams, Seriki Samuel Adinoyi, Chiamaka Nnenna Ukpabi, Hypolipidaemic Effect of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Moringa Oleifera Lam. in Experimentally induced Hypercholesterolemic Wistar Rats, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. Vol. 3, No. 4, 2014, pp. 355-360. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20140304.28
References
[1]
Alberts AW, Chen J, Curon G, Hunt V, Huff J, Hoffman C, Rothrock J, Lopez M, Oshau H, Harris E, Patchett A, Monaghan R, Currie S, Stapley E, Albers-Schonberg G, Hensen O, Hirschfield J, Hoogsteen K, Liesch J, Springer J, and Mevinonlin P. A highly potent competitive inhibitor of hydroxyl methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase and cholesterol-lowering agent. Proc Natl Acad Sci., 1980; 77:3957.
[2]
Altschul R. Influence of nicotinic acid (Niacin) on hypercholesterolemia and hyperlipedemia and on the course of atherosclerosis. In: Altschul R, editor. Niacin in vascular disorder of and hyperlipidemia Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas; 1964; Pp. 135.
[3]
Amaglo NK, Bennett RN, Lo-Curto RB, Rosa EAS, Lo-Turco V, Giuffrid A, Lo Curto A.Crea F, and Timpo GM. Profiling selected phytochemicalsand nutrients in different tissues of the multipurpose tree Moringa oleifera L. grown in Ghana. Food Chem., 2010; 122, 1047–1054.
[4]
Awodele O, Oreagba IA, Odoma S, Silva JAT, Osunkalu VO. Toxicological evaluation of the aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae). J Ethnopharmacol 2012, 139: 330-336.
[5]
Bordia A, and Verma SK. Effect of Celastrus paniculatus wild oil (Bravobol) on blood lipids in patients of coronary. Antiseptic, 1998; 95(4)112.
[6]
Cho AS, Jeon SM, Kim MJ. “Chlorogenic acid and moriginine exhibit anti-obesity property and improves lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced-obese mice”. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2010. Vol. 48, No. 3. Pp. 937-943.
[7]
Choudhary MK, Bodakhe SK, Gupta SK. Assessment of the antiulcer potential of Moringa oleifera root bark extract in rats. J Acupunct Meridian Stud (2013).
[8]
El-Olemy MM, Al-Muhtadi FJ, Afifi AA. Experimental Phytochemistry. A laboratory Manual. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: King Saud University Press, 1994.
[9]
Enas EA. Cholesterol made easy: The good, bad and the ugly. (CADI Research, USA) 1999; 1.
[10]
European Treaty Series, 2005. European Convention for the protection of vertebrate animals used for experimental and other scientific purposes. European Treaty Series, Strasbourg, ETS-123.
[11]
Fahey JW. A Review of the Medical Evidence for Its Nutritional, Therapeutic, and Prophylactic Properties. Part1. Trees Life Journal, 2005;1: 5-15.
[12]
Foidl N, Makkar HPS, and Becker K. The potential of Moringa oleifera for agricultural and industrial uses. In: “The Miracle Tree/ The Multiple Attributes of Moringa” (Ed. Lowell J Fuglie). CTA. USA, 2001.
[13]
Frawley BA. Phytochemicals in plant-based foods could help battle obesity, diseases. Health Research, 2009; afrawley@ufl.edu 352-273-5817.
[14]
Gonzalez-Castejon M, and Rodriguez-Casado A. Dietary phytochemicals their potential effects on obesity: a review. Pharmacol Res. 2001; Nov ;64(5):438-55.PMID 21798349.
[15]
Gupta et al. Evaluation of antidiabeticand antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera in experimental diabetes. J Diabetes (2012).
[16]
Harborne J D. Phytochemical methods: A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. Chapman & Hall, London, 1973. p. 279..
[17]
Jaiswal D. et al. Role of Moringa oleifera in regulation of diabetes-induced oxidative stress. Asian Pac J Trop. Med. 2013.
[18]
Kannel WB, Castelli CW, Gordon T, and McNamara PM. Serum cholesterol, lipoprotein, and the risk of coronary heart diseases. Ann Intern Med., 1971;74:1.
[19]
Limon-Pacheco J, and Gonsebatt ME. The role of antioxidants and antioxidant-related enzymes in protective responses to environmentally induced oxidative stress. Mutat. Res., 2009; 674, 137–147.
[20]
Mahajan S, and Mehta A. Curative effect of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Moringa oleifera lam. against adjuvant induced established arthritis in rats. Niger. J. Nat. Prod. Med., 2009; 13, 13–22.
[21]
Mainasara MM, Aliero BL, Aliero AA, Yakubu M. Phytochemical and antibacterial properties of root and leaf extract of Calotropis procera. Nig. J. Basic Appl. Sci. 2012, 20(1):1-6.
[22]
Mathur NT, Varma M, and Dixit VP. Hypolipidemic and antiatherosclerotic effect of Celastrus paniculatus seed extract (50% E-OH) in cholesterol fed rabbits. Indian Drugs, 1993; 30(2)76.
[23]
Mayes PA. Lipid transport and storage, in Harper’s biochemistry, edited by Murray R K, Granner D K, Mayes P A & Rodwell V W, 24th edition (Prentice Hall International, Inc., USA) 1996, 254.
[24]
Odebiyi A. and Sofowora AE. Phytochemical screening of Nigerian medicinal plant. Part III, Lloydia, 1978. 41, 234-246.
[25]
Onyeneke EC. and Anyanwu GO. Effect of Alstonia boonia De Wild on high fat diet induced obesity in male wistar rats. European Journal of Scientific Research., 2013; Vol 112, No 3. Pp 292–299.
[26]
Oyedepo TA, Babarinde SO, Ajayeoba TA. Evaluation of Anti-hyperlipidemic Effect of Aqueous Leaves Extract of Moringa oleifera in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats. International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review 3(3): 162-170.
[27]
Patil RH, Prakash K, and Maheshwari VL. Hypolipidemic effect of Celastrus paniculatus in experimentally induced hypercholesterolemic Wistar rats. Indian J Clin Biochem., 2010; 25(4):405-410.
[28]
Phil-Sun O, Sei-Jung L, and Kye-Taek L. Hypolipidemic and antiobedetive of the plant glycoprotein (36 KDa) from the Rhus vernicufulia stokes fruit in Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006; 70(2):447.
[29]
Quattrocchi NT, and Umberto MP. CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names: Common Names, Scientific Names, Eponyms, Synonyms, and Etymology. 2000; Volume 3: M-Q. CRC Press. p. 1731. ISBN 978-0-8493-2677-6. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=kaN-hLL-3qEC&dq
[30]
Rana JS, Nieuwdorp M, Jukema JW, and Kastelein JJ. Cardiovascular metabolic syndrome–an interplay of, obesity, inflammation, diabetes and coronary heart disease. Diabetes Obes. Metab., 2007; 9:218–232.
[31]
Rang AP, Dale MM, and Ritter JM. Pharmacology. 3rd edn (Churchill Livingstone, New York) 1995; 409.
[32]
Sofowora A. Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa, 2nd Edition, Spectrum Books, Ibadan, Nigeria; 1993. 26-100.
[33]
Tandon S. Phytochemicals and cardiovascular health. High Current R and D. 2005; 28:18-22.
[34]
Trease G.E, and Evans MC. A textbook of Pharmacognosy, 1983. 12th ed. Bailliere-Tindall Ltd., London. 1983. Pp. 343-383.
[35]
Treasure CB, Klein JL, Weintraub WS, Talley JD, Stillabow ME, Kisonski AS, Zhang J, Boccuzzi SJ, Codarholm JC, and Alexander RW. Beneficial effects of cholesterol lowering therapy on the coronary endothelium in patients with coronary heart disease. New England Journal of Medicine,1995; 332: 481.
[36]
Verzosa BR, and Caryssa LH."Malunggay and Spinach Powder (Investigatory Project Sample)".Scribd.com.http://www.scribd.com/doc/29164852/Malunggay-and-Spinach-Powder-Investigatory-Project-Sample;2012.
[37]
Walls ME, Wani MC, Brown DM, and Fullas F. Effect of tannins on screening of plant extracts for enzyme inhibitory activity and techniques for their removal. Phytomedicine, 1996, 3,281–285.
[38]
Yakubu M T, Akanji MA, and Oladiji AT. Alterations in serum lipid profile of male rats by oral administration of aqueous extract of Fadogia argrestis stem, Res J Med Plant 2, 2008; 66.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186