Prevalence of Goiter and Associated Factors Among Primary School Children Aged 6-12 Years Old in Goba Town, South East, Ethiopia
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 4, Issue 3, May 2015, Pages: 381-387
Received: Apr. 9, 2015; Accepted: May 1, 2015; Published: May 12, 2015
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Authors
Habtamu Demelash Enyew, Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Madawalabu University, Bale Goba, Ethiopia
Ketema Gashaw Zemedkun, Department of Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Madawalabu University, Bale Goba, Ethiopia
Addisu Melese Dagnaw, Department of Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Science, Madawalabu University, Bale Goba, Ethiopia
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Abstract
Background: There are many reasons for children to underperform at school such as nutritional status, socio-cultural environment and other environmental factors. Iodine deficiency disorder is the major cause of preventable brain damage in children resulting in academic underperformance. Although few studies have been conducted on goiter among primary school children in Ethiopia, the mountainous area like Goba town which experiences poor soil conservation over a long period of time and the leaching away of the iodine-rich soil, needs special concern. Objective: This study assessed the prevalence of goiter and its associated factors among school children in Goba town, southeastern Ethiopia. Methods: School based cross sectional study design was employed on study participants of 397 children in age groups of 6-12 years from four primary schools in Goba town with a 98.2% response rate. The study was conducted from April to May, 2012. A systematic sampling technique was applied to select children; Pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic variables of children and their parents. Selected students were examined for the presence of goiter and classified based on WHO recommendation. Salt test for iodine content was done using field fast salt test kit. Multiple logistic regression analysis was done to see the effect of independent variables on the outcome variable (presence of goiter). Results: Out of 397 childern 209(52.6%) were females. The total goiter prevalence was 50.6 %{ 95% CI = (45.7, 55.6)} with grade 1 goiter having 33.5% {95% CI = (28.9, 38.4)} and grade 2 goiter having 17.1 %{ 95% CI = (13.6, 21.3)}. The goiter prevalence was found higher in females 112(53.6%) {95% CI = (46.6, 60.5)} than in males 89 (47.3%) {95 % CI = (40.0, 54.7)} though statistically insignificant in the studied school age children. The age of study subjects (AOR=1.86; 95% CI=1.10, 3.15) had significant association with goiter. With respect to salt consumption at home, for the study participants 110(27.7%) of children were given salt which had no iodine (0 ppm) and 169(42.6%) of them were given salt which contained medium level of salt (<15ppm) and the remaining 118(29.7%) were given sufficiently iodized salt. Conclusion: Prevalence of total goiter among school children is very high and it was higher in females than males. The salt test results showed that most households do not use sufficiently iodised salt.
Keywords
Iodine, Goiter, Children, Iodized Salt
To cite this article
Habtamu Demelash Enyew, Ketema Gashaw Zemedkun, Addisu Melese Dagnaw, Prevalence of Goiter and Associated Factors Among Primary School Children Aged 6-12 Years Old in Goba Town, South East, Ethiopia, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. Vol. 4, No. 3, 2015, pp. 381-387. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20150403.26
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