Influence of Corn and Millet Starches as Fat Substitutes on Cake Quality
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 5, Issue 5, September 2016, Pages: 352-360
Received: Aug. 31, 2016; Accepted: Sep. 12, 2016; Published: Oct. 10, 2016
Views 2992      Downloads 101
Authors
Ola S. Ibrahim, Crops Technology Research Department, Food Technology Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Al-Giza, Egypt
Ghada A. Alfauomy, Crops Technology Research Department, Food Technology Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Al-Giza, Egypt
Mona M. A. Ali, Crops Technology Research Department, Food Technology Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Al-Giza, Egypt
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Current dietary guidelines focus on lowering dietary fat and increasing complex carbohydrate intake. In the present study, two grain starches corn and millet were used to produce resistant starch (RS) and used as partially fat replacer (at 12.5, 25, 37.5 and 50%) in cakes. The effect of the level of fat substitution on the physicochemical and sensory properties as well as starch digestibility and shelf life of the cakes were investigated. The study showed that moisture content of the products was increased by increasing the level of fat substitution. The caloric values of produced cakes were lower than that of control. The specific volume of cakes were higher at 12.5 and 25% fat replacement levels. In contrast, cake density decreased by increasing shortening replacement level up to 25%, it was lower and reached 0.38g cm-3 in relative to control (0.41g cm-3). TPA values cleared that cake prepared with 12.5 and 25% substitution levels were less hardness. Increasing the replacement level more than 25% increased the cake hardness, gumminess and chewiness. Results of color analysis showed a significant increase in L value and a decrease in b value. The highest decrement in starch digestibility was observed at 50% replacement level. The use of (RS) does not change the taste and improve sensory properties of produced cakes. The shelf life based on the microbial examination of the cake for all samples and control recorded 2 weeks.
Keywords
Corn, Millet, RS, Fat, Calorie, TPA, Analysis, Shelf Life
To cite this article
Ola S. Ibrahim, Ghada A. Alfauomy, Mona M. A. Ali, Influence of Corn and Millet Starches as Fat Substitutes on Cake Quality, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. Vol. 5, No. 5, 2016, pp. 352-360. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20160505.16
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Tabibloghmany, F. S. and Ehsandoost, E. (2014). Investigation of Nutritional and Functional Properties of Resistant Starch in Food Industry: A Review. International Journal of Recent Research and Review, Vol. VII, Issue 1, March 2014.
[2]
Reader, D., Johnson, M. L., Hollander, P., and Franz, M. (1997). Response of resistant starch in a food bar vs. two commercially available bars in persons with type II diabetes mellitus. Diabetes, 46 (1), 254.
[3]
Sajilata, M. G., Singhal, R. S.and Kulkarni, P. R. (2006). Resistant starch – A review. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 5, 1–17.
[4]
Barclay A. W., Petocz P., McMillan-Price J., Victoria M. F., Tania P., Paul M. and Brand-Miller J. C. (2008). Glycemic index, glycemic load, and chronic disease risk- a meta analysis of observational. Am J Clin Nut 87: 627-637.
[5]
Bjorck I., Liljeberg H. and Ostman E. (2000). Low glycaemic-index foods. Brit J of Nutr 83 (1): S149-S155.
[6]
Jenkin C., Kendall W., Augustin L. S., Franceschi S., Hamidi M., Marchie A., Jenkins A. L. and Axelsen M.(2002). Glycemic index: overview of implications in health and disease. Am. J. of Clin Nutr. 76: 266S-273 S
[7]
Haralampu, S. G. (2000). Resistant starch: A review of the physical properties and biological impact of RS3. Carbohydrate Polymers, 41, 285–292
[8]
Kim H. Y. L., Yeom H. W. Lim H. S, and Lim S.-T. (2001). Replacement of Shortening in Yellow Layer Cakes by Corn Dextrins. Cereal Chem. 78 (3): 267–271.
[9]
Tharanathan, R. N. (2002). Food-derived carbohydrates: Structural complexity and functional diversity. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, 22 (1), 65–84
[10]
Baixauli, R., Salvador, A., Martinez-Cervera, S. and Fiszman, S. M. (2008). Distinctive sensory features introduced by resistant starch in baked products. Food Science and Technology, 41, 1927–1933
[11]
Nugent, A. P. (2005). Health properties of resistant starch. British Nutrition Foundation, Nutrition Bulletin, 30, 27-54.
[12]
Charalampopoulos, D., Wang, R., Pandiella, S. S., and Webb, C. (2002). Application of cereals and cereal components in functional foods: A review. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 79, 131–141.
[13]
Matsakidou, A, Blekas, G. and Paraskevopoulou, A. (2010) Aroma and Physical Characteristics of Cakes Prepared by Replacing Margarine with Extra Virgin Olive Oil. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 43, 949-957.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2010.02.002.
[14]
Sahi S. S. and Alava J. M. (2003). Functionality of emulsifiers in sponge cake production. J. of the Sci. of Food and Agri. 83: 1419–1429.
[15]
Foster-Powell, Susanna H. A. Holt, and Janette C. Brand-Miller. International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values: (2002). Am J Clin Nutr; 76: 5–56.
[16]
Sanchez, C., Klopfenstein, C. F. and Walker C. E.(1995) Use of Carbohydrate-Based Fat Substitutes and Emulsifying Agents in Reduced-Fat Shortbread Cookies. American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc. Vol. 72. No. 1.
[17]
Bhupender, S. K., Rajneesh, B. and Baljeet, S. Y. (2013) Physicochemical, functional, thermal and pasting properties of starches isolated from pearl millet cultivars. International Food Research Journal 20(4): 1555-1561.
[18]
Sievert, D., and Pomeranz. Y. (1989). Enzyme-resistant starch. Characterization and evaluation by enzymatic, thermoanalytical, and microscopic methods. Cereal Chem. 66:342.
[19]
Lin Po-Ying, Czuchajowska Z and Pomeranz Y., (1994) Enzyme-Resistant Starch in Yellow Layer Cake. Cereal Chem. 71 (1): 69-75.
[20]
AOAC (2005) Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. 18th Edition, AOAC, Washington D. C.
[21]
Singh U; Khardekar M. S. and Jambunathan R. (2006). Studies on desi and Kabuli chickpea (Cicer orietinum) cultivars. The level of amylase inhibitors, level of oligosaccharides and in vitro starch digestability. Journal of Food Science, 47 (2): 510 - 512
[22]
James, C. S. (1995) General Food Studies. In: Analytical Chemistry of Foods, Chapter 6, Blachie Academic and Professional, 137-171. http://dx. doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-2165-5_6.
[23]
AACC (2002) Approved Method of American Association of Cereal Chemists. Approved Methodsof AACC Published by the American Association of Cereal Chemists. 13th. Ed, St. Paul, Inc. Minnesota.
[24]
McGurie, R. G. (1992) Reporting of Objective Color Measurements. HortScience, 27, 1254-1255.
[25]
Bennion, E. B. and Bamford, G. S. (1983) The Technology of Cake Making. Leonard Hill Books, Great Britain by Builling and Son‘s Ed., London, 241 p.
[26]
Mislivec, P. B; Beuchat, L. R. and Cousin, M. A. (1992). Yeast and molds. pp. 239-249. In: Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods, 3rd ed. Vanderzant. C. and Splittstoesser, D. F. (eds.). American Public Health Association, Washington, D. C.
[27]
Swanson, K. M. J., Busta, F. F., Peterson, E. H. and Johnson, M. G (1992). Colony count methods. PP. 75-95. In: Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods, 3rd ed. Vanderzant. C. and Splittstoesser, D. F (eds). American Public Health Association, Washington, D. C.
[28]
SAS (1987). Statistical analysis system. Release 6.03. SAS Institute Inc. Carry, Nc. USA.
[29]
Majzoobi M., Hedayati S., Habibi M., Ghiasi F., and Farahnaky A., (2014). Effects of Corn Resistant Starch on the Physicochemical Properties of Cake J. Agr. Sci. Tech. Vol. 16: 569-576.
[30]
Keenan M. J; Zhou J; Mccutcheon K. L; Raggio A. M; Bateman H. G; and Todd E., (2006). Effects of resistant starch, a nondigestible fermentable fiber, on reducing body fat. Obesity, 14, 1523–1534.
[31]
Rahman, S., Bird, A., Regin, A., Li, Z., Ral, J. P, McMaugh, S Toppinga, D and Morella, M. (2007). Resistant starch in cereals: Exploiting genetic engineering and genetic variation. Journal of Cereal Science 46, 251–260. 32. DeVries, J. W. (2004). Dietary fiber: The influence of definition on analysis and regulation. Journal of AOAC International, 87 (3), 682–706.
[32]
DeVries, J. W. (2004). Dietary fiber: The influence of definition on analysis and regulation. Journal of AOAC International, 87 (3), 682–706.
[33]
Bath, D. E., Shelke, K., and Hoseney, R. C.(1992). Fat replacers in highratio layer cakes. Cereal Foods World 37: 495-500.
[34]
Brooker, B. E. (1993). The stabilization of air in cake batters-The role of fat. Food Struct. 12, 285-296.
[35]
Paraskevopoulou, A. and V. Kiosseoglou, (1997). Texture profile analysis of heat-formed gels and cakes prepared with low cholesterol egg yolk concentrates. J. Food Sci., 62: 208-211.
[36]
Khalil, A. H (1998). The influence of carbohydrate-based fat replacers with and without emulsifiers on the quality characteristics of low fat cake. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr 52: 299-313.
[37]
Frei M., Siddhuraju P., and Becker K., (2003). Studies on the in vitro starch digestibility and the glycemic index of six different indigenous rice cultivars from the Philippines. Food Chem 83: 395–402.
[38]
Pongjanta J, Utaipatanacheep A, Naivikul O. and Piyachomkwan K (2007). Improvement of resistant starch type III formation from high amylose rice starch by enzymatically debranching process. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Starch Technology, pp 245- 251. Queen Sirikit National Convention Center Bangkok, Thailand.
[39]
Thilagavathi T; Banumathi P; Kanachana S; and Ilamaran M. (2015). Effect of heat moisture treatment on functional and phytochemical properties of native and modified millet flours. Plant Archives Vol. 15 NO. 1, 2015 pp 15-21.
[40]
Altan A., Kathryn L. McCarthy and Medeni Maskan, (2008). Twin-screw extrusion of barley–grape pomace blends: Extrudate characteristics and determination of optimum processing conditions. Journal of Food Engineering 89, 24–32.
[41]
Majzoobi, M., Darabzadeh, N. and Farahnaky, A (2012). Effects of percentage and particle size of wheat germ on some properties of batter and cake. J. Agric. Sci. Technol. 14, 827-836.
[42]
Baixauli, R., Salvador, A. and Fiszman, S. M (2008). Textural and Color Changes during Storage and Sensory Shelf Life of Muffins Containing Resistant Starch. Eur. J. Food Res. Technol., 226: 523–530.
[43]
Mossel, D. A. A; Corry, E. L.; Struijk, C. B. and Baird, R. M. (1995). Essential of the microbiology of foods, a textbook for Advanced studies. John wiley and sons, chichester.
[44]
Bazaraa W. A. Riyad Y. M., Abdel Salam S. M. and AlFaumy, G. A. (2005) The antimicrobial activity of maillard reaction products in model and applied systems. Bull. Fac. Agric. Cairo Univ. 56: (4) 813-838.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186