Essential Trace Element and Mineral Deficiencies and Cardiovascular Diseases: Facts and Controversies
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 6, Issue 2, March 2017, Pages: 53-64
Received: Dec. 28, 2016; Accepted: Jan. 9, 2017; Published: Feb. 4, 2017
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Christopher Edet Ekpenyong, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria
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Deficiencies of minerals and trace elements are common and widespread, and are associated with adverse cardiovascular endpoints. Emerging evidence indicates that, diet rich in these nutrients constitutes a modifiable lifestyle factor that might reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the clinical significance of these nutrients in optimizing cardiovascular health and/or ameliorating cardiovascular pathologies is currently debatable. This review aims to explore evidences in favor or against the role of these nutrients in the pathogenesis, progression, management and endpoints of CVDs, and extend the discussion on some discrepant research findings. Literature search was conducted in PubMed, Medline, Scopus and EMBASE databases on studies published in English between 1963 and 2016 using appropriate terms such as minerals, Trace elements, Chromium, Copper, Iron, Magnesium, Selenium, Manganese, Zinc deficiencies and CVD. Indeed, trace elements and minerals play significant cardio protective roles when they are present in adequate pharmacologic concentrations due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immune function modulatory activities. The discrepant results recorded in some studies could be due to the effects of several poorly adjusted covariates such as interactions between paired/complementary micronutrients, absence of uniformly accepted cut off values for normal range, individual susceptibility and environmental factors and several methodology inadequacies. Supplementation of these nutrients in pharmacologic doses in high-risk individuals or those with known deficiency states is cardioprotective.
Trace Element, Mineral, Heart Disease
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Christopher Edet Ekpenyong, Essential Trace Element and Mineral Deficiencies and Cardiovascular Diseases: Facts and Controversies, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. Vol. 6, No. 2, 2017, pp. 53-64. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20170602.11
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