Determination of Pesticide Residues in Plant-Based Foods from the Republic of Macedonia
Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences
Volume 2, Issue 4, July 2014, Pages: 124-129
Received: Jun. 2, 2014;
Accepted: Jun. 12, 2014;
Published: Jun. 30, 2014
Views 3576 Downloads 271
Vesna Kostik, Faculty of Medical Science, Department of Pharmacy, University “Goce Delchev”, Shtip, Republic of Macedonia
Bistra Angelovska, Faculty of Medical Science, Department of Pharmacy, University “Goce Delchev”, Shtip, Republic of Macedonia
Evgenija Kiroska-Petreska, Department of Pharmacy, University Goce Delchev, Shtip, Republic of Macedonia
Biljana Bauer, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of “Ss Cyril and Methodius”, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
The present study investigates pesticide residues in samples of fresh and processed fruits and vegetables produced in Republic of Macedonia. Investigations were carried out as a part of the National Monitoring Programme under the recommendations of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). From September 2012 to June 2013, a total of 168 samples of different fresh vegetables: tomato, paprika, cucumber, potato, onion, carrot, cabbage; processed vegetables: pasteurized paprika, ketchup; fresh fruits: apple, acid cherry, table grapes and wine grapes; processed fruits: jams and canned fruits were tested on the presence of 33 pesticide residues. The QuEChERS procedure was used for sample preparation, except for dithiocarabamates and gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) techniques were applied for pesticide residues identification and determination. The results of the study showed that cucumber was the crop with the highest number of pesticide residues with the predominant presence of methomyl, (0.015-0.21 mg/kg), metalaxyl (0.04-0.16 mg/kg), and imidacloprid (0.017-0.036 mg/kg). Only two samples (1.19% of the total samples) contained one pesticide residue above the Maximum Residues Levels (MRLs). The results of the current study showed that 98.8% of the tested samples contained residues below the MRLs.
Determination of Pesticide Residues in Plant-Based Foods from the Republic of Macedonia, Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences.
Vol. 2, No. 4,
2014, pp. 124-129.
D. J. Ecobichon, “Pesticide use in developing countries”, Toxicology, vol. 160 (1-3), pp.27 – 33, 2001.
T. Cserháti and M. Zőgyi, “Chromatographic determination of pesticides in food and food products,” Eur.Chem. Bull. , vol., 1 (3-4), pp. 58-68, 2012.
P. Cabras and A. An-gioni,”Pesticides residues in grapes, wine and their processing products,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 48 (4), pp. 967-973, 2000.
S. Navarro, J. Oliva, G. Navarro and A. Barba, ”Dissipation of chlorpyrifos, fenarimol, mancozeb, metalaxyl, penconazole, and vinclozol in in grapes,” American Journal of Enology and Viticulture,” vol. 52 (1), pp.35-40, 2001.
G. F. Pang, C.L. Fan, Y.M. Liu, Y. Z. Cao, J. J. Zhang, and X. M. Li, “Determination of residues of 446 pesticides in fruits and vegetables by three cartridges solid-phase extraction-gas chrornatogra-phy-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry,” Journal of AOAC Int. vol. 89 (3), pp.740-771, 2006.
S.J. Lehotay, “Determination of pesticide residues in foods by acetonitrile extraction and partitioning with magnesium sulphate: collaborative study,” Journal of AOAC Int. vol. 90 (2), pp. 485-520, 2007.
J. Fillion, F. Sauve and J. Selwyn, “Multiresidue method for the determinationof residues of 251 pesticides in fruit and vegetables by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography with f1uorescence detec-tion,” Joumal of AOAC International, vol. 83 (3), pp. 698-713, 2000.
J. Gandara, P. Lesada, V. G Rodriguez and A.R. Rodriguez, ”Comparison of GC-MS and HPLC-UV for determination of pro-cymidone in wine,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 41 (4), pp. 674-677, 1993.
R.M. Gonzalez-Rodriguez, B. Cancho-Grande and J. Simal-Gandara, “Multiresidue determination of 11 new fungicides in grapes and wines by liquid-liquid extraction clean-up and programmable temperature vaporization injection with analyte protectants/gas chromatogra-phy/ion trap mass spectrometry,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1216 (32), pp. 6033-6042,2009.
H. B. Christensen, M. E. Poulsen, P. H. Rasmussen and D. Christen, “Development of an LC-MS/MS method for the determination of pesticides and patulin in apples,” Food Addit. Contam. Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess., vol. 26 (7), pp. 1013-1027, 2009.
Y. Picó, G J. Font, C. Moltó and , J Mañes,” Pesticide residue determination in fruit and vegetables by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry,” Journal of Chromatography, vol. 882(1-2), pp. 153-73. 2000.
EN 15662:2008: Foods of plant origin, “Determination of pesticide re-sidues using GC-MS and/or LC/MS/MS following acetonitrile extraction/partion and clean-up by dispersive SPE-QuEChERS method”.
B. Kmellar, P. Fodor, L. Pareja, C. Ferrer, M.A.; Marti-nez-Uroz, A. Valverde and A.R Fernandez-Alba, “Validation and uncertainty study of a compre-hensive list of 160 pesticide residues in multi – class vegetables by liquid chromatography – tan-dem mass spectrometry,” Journal of Chromatography A., vol. 1215, pp. 37-50, 2008
H. Baša Česnik and A Gregorčič, “Validation of the method for the determination of dithiocarba-mates and thiuram disulphide on apple, lettuce, potato, strawberry and tomato matrix,” Acta Chimica Slovenica, vol. 53 (1), pp. 100-104, 2006.
M. Barreda, F.J Lopez, M. Villarroya, J. Beltran, J.M. Garca-Baudin and F. Hernandez, “Residues determination of captan and folpet in vegetable samples by gas chromatography/negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry,” Journal of AOAC International, vol. 89 (4), pp. 1080-1088, 2006.
J.X. Xiao, Z. Yun, X.W. Jing, T.W. Ji, H.Z. Yan, S. Kai , L.Y. Yun and Q.Y. Jing, “Brassinosteroids promote metabolism of pesticides in cucumber,”. Journal of Agric. and Food Chem., vol. 57 (18), pp. 8406-8413, 2009.
T.A. Mohamed and M.M. Saad, “Residues of methomyl in strawberries, tomatoes and cucumbers,” Pest Management Science,” vol. 44 (2), pp. 197-199, 1995.
Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 February 2005 on maximum residue levels of pesticides in or on food and feed of plant and animal origin and amending Council Directive 91/414/EEC.
EFSA (2013),”The 2010 European Union Report on Pesticide Residues in Food,” EFSA Journal, vol. 11(3): 3130, pp. 808, 2013.
F. Čuš, H. Baša Česnik, B.Š Velikonja and A. Gregorčič, “Pesticides residues in grapes and during vinification process”, Food Control, vol. 21, pp. 1512-1518, 2010.
S. Celik, S. Kunc and T. Asan,” Degradation of some pesticides in the field and effect of Processing”, Analyst. vol. 120, pp. 1739 – 1743, 1995.