Effect of Soaking African Yam Bean Seeds in Unripe Plantain Peel Ash Solutions on the Nutrients, Anti-nutrients and Functional Properties of the Flour
Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences
Volume 3, Issue 4, July 2015, Pages: 147-151
Received: May 30, 2015;
Accepted: Jun. 16, 2015;
Published: Jul. 3, 2015
Views 5224 Downloads 120
Inyang Ufot Evanson, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
Eyo Edima Atanguma, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
The dark brown coloured variety of African yam bean seeds (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) were soaked in distilled water (control) and in 1,2,3,4 and 5% solutions of unripe plantain peel ash (1:3w/v) for 15h at room temperature (27+0C), decorticated and processed into flours. The effects of soaking the seeds in different concentrations of the ash solution on proximate, mineral and anti-nutrient composition as well as on the functional properties of the flours were investigated. Result showed that the treatments had varying effects on the parameters evaluated. Flours prepared from seeds that were soaked in ash solutions had significantly (p<0.05) higher protein, ash and crude fibre and significantly (p<0.05) lower carbohydrate and energy value than the values found in the flour from seeds that were soaked in water. Flours prepared from ash solutions soaked seeds had significantly (p<0.05) higher K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe and Zn than the values found in the flour from seeds that were soaked in water. The mineral contents in the flours increased with increase in the levels of ash in the soaked solutions. On the other hand, the hydrogen cyanide, tannin, oxalate and phytate levels in the flours from ash solutions soaked seeds were significantly (p<0.05) lower than their values in the flour from seeds that were soaked in water. The reductive effect of the anti-nutrients increased with increase in the levels of ash in the solutions used to soak the seeds. Flours from ash solutions soaked seeds had significantly (p<0.05) higher oil absorption capacity, marginally (p>0.05) higher swelling index and marginally (p>0.05) lower water absorption capacity and bulk density than the flour from seeds that were soaked in water. It is evident from the study that soaking African yam bean seeds in unripe plantain peel ash solutions has beneficial effects as the flours prepared from the soaked seeds had higher levels of protein and mineral elements, lower levels of anti-nutrients and the functional properties were not impaired when compared with flour from seeds that were soaked in water.
Inyang Ufot Evanson,
Eyo Edima Atanguma,
Effect of Soaking African Yam Bean Seeds in Unripe Plantain Peel Ash Solutions on the Nutrients, Anti-nutrients and Functional Properties of the Flour, Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences.
Vol. 3, No. 4,
2015, pp. 147-151.
E. A. Nwokolo. “The need to increase consumption of pulses in the developing world” in E. A. Nwokolo and J. S. Smart (ed.). Food and Feed from legumes and oil seeds. Chapman and Hall, London 1996. pp 3-11.
N. J. Enwere. Food of plant origin: Afro Orbis publications Ltd., Nsukka, Nigeria 1998. pp.24-78
D. F. Apata and A. D. Ologhobo. Some aspects of biochemistry and nutritive value of African yam bean seeds (Sphenostylis stenocarpa). Food Chem. 36:271-280, 1990.
B. Adewale, A. Daniel and C. O. Aremu. The nutritional potentials and possibilities in African yam bean for Africans. Int. J. Agric. 3(1): 8-19, 2013
D. O. Edem, C. I. Amugo and O. U. Eka. Chemical composition of yam beans (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) Trop. Sci. 30:59-63, 1990.
C. Hotz and R. S. Gibson. Assessment of home base processing methods to reduce the phytate content and phytate/zinc molar ratio of white maize (zea mays) J. Agric. Food Chem. 49: 692 – 698, 2001.
S. A. Odunfa and S. Adeyele. Microbiological changes during traditional production of ogi-baba. A West African fermented sorghum gruel. J. Cereal Sci. 3:173-180, 1985.
H. N. Ene-obong and I. C. Obizoba. Effect of domestic processing on the cooking time, nutrients, antinutrients and invitro protein digestibility of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa). Plant food Hum. Nutr. 49:43-52, 1996.
H. O. Njoku, I. Eli and C. O. Ofunya. Effect of pre-treatment on cooking time of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa). J. Food Sci. 54: 758-759, 1989.
A. E. Muburak. Nutritional composition and anti-nutritional factors of mung bean seed (phaseolus aureus) as affected by some home traditional processes. J. Food Chem. 89(4): 489-495, 2005.
L. F. De-leon, L. G. Elias and R. Bressani. Effect of salt solution on the cooking time, nutritional and sensory characteristics of common beans. Food Res. Int. 131-136. 1992.
A. A. Olufunmilola and O. A. Rauf. Effect of dehulling/soaking on the chemical, functional and anti-nutritional content of three varieties of beans. Nutri Food Sci. 41(2): 117-122, 2011.
AOAC, Official methods of Analysis (17th edn) Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Washington D. C. USA, 2000.
A. I. Ihekoronye and P. O. Ngoddy. Integrated Food Science and Technology for the Tropics. MacMillan Edu. Publishers, London, 1985, pp. 283-285.
D. Oberleas. “Phylates” in F. Strong (ed.) Toxicants occurring naturally in Foods. National Academy of Science, Washington D. C. USA, 1973, pp. 363 – 371.
B. W. Abbey and G. O. Ibeh. Functional Properties of raw and heat processed cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) floor. J. Food Sci 53(6): 1775 – 1778, 1988.
B. O. Okezie and A. B. Bello. Physico-chemical and functional properties of winged bean flour and isolate compared with soy isolate. J. Food Sci. 53(2): 450-454, 1988.
K. H. Meyer. Food chemistry (3rd edn). The AVI Publication company Inc. Westport, Connecticut, USA, 1978, pp. 118-146.
J. C. Ani, U. E. Inyang and I. Udoidem. Effect of concentration of debittering agent on the mineral, vitamin and phytochemical contents of Lasianthera africana leafy vegetable. Afri. J. Food Sci. 9(4): 194-199, 2015.
R. A. Ejoh, D. V. Nkonga, G. Innocent and M. S. Moses. Effect of the method of processing and preservation on some quality parameters of three non-conventional leafy vegetables. Pak. J. Nutr. 6(2): 128-133, 2007.
A. S. Adeboye and J. M. Babajide. Effect of processing methods on anti-nutrients in selected leaf. Nig. Food J. 25(2): 77-87, 2007.
A. A. Akindahunsi and S. O. Salawu Phytochemical screening of nutrient and some anti-nutrient composition of selected tropical green leafy vegetables. Afr. J. Biotech. 4(6): 497-501, 2005.
M. B. Grosvernor and L. A. Smolin. Nutrition: From Science to Life. Harcourt College Publishers, New York, USA, 2002, pp. 288-371.
F. Y. Oladipo and L, M. Nwokocha. Effect of Sida acuta and Carborous olitorius mucilages on the physico-chemcial properties of maize and sorghum starches. Asian J. Appl. Sci. 4:514-523, 2011.
T. A. Shittu, A. Dixon, S. O. Awonorin, L. O. Sanni and B. Maziya-Dixon. Bread from composite cassava-wheat flour. 11: Effect of cassava genotype and nitrogen fertilizer on bread quality. Food Res. Inter. 41: 569-578, 2008.
M. O. Iwe and O. O. Onadipe. Effect of extruded full fat soy flour into sweet potato flour on functional properties of the mixture. J. Sustain. Agric. Environ. 3(1): 109-117, 2001.
M. O. Iwe and E. I. Egwuekwe. Production and evaluation of cookies from xanthosonia sagitolium and colocasia escuenta blends. Nig. Food J. 23(1): 145-153, 2010.
A. A. Olapado and O. B. Oluwole. Bread making potential of composite flour of wheat-acha (Digitaria exilis staph) enriched with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) flour. Nig. Food J. 31(1): 6-12, 2013.
S. C. Achinewhu, I. J. Baiben and J. O. Ijeoma. Physico-chemical properties and certification of selected cassava cultivars in Rivers State. Plant Food Hum. Nutr. 52:133-140, 1998.
A. A. Adebowale, L. O. Sanni and M. O. Onitilio. Chemical composition and pasting properties of tapioca grit from different cassava varieties and roasting methods. Afri. J. Food Sci 2: 77-82, 2008.