Glaciers Retreat and Climate Change Effect During the Last One Century in the Mestiachala River Basin, Caucasus Mountains, Georgia
Volume 4, Issue 2, April 2015, Pages: 72-79
Received: Mar. 14, 2015;
Accepted: Mar. 25, 2015;
Published: Mar. 31, 2015
Views 3912 Downloads 177
Levan G. Tielidze, Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography, Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State Uniersity. Tbilisi, Georgia
Nino Lomidze, Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography, Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State Uniersity. Tbilisi, Georgia
Lasha Asanidze, Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography, Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State Uniersity. Tbilisi, Georgia
The dynamics of glaciers of Mestiachala river basin for the last century is revised in the paper. The percentage shrinking of areas of compound valley glaciers with the relation of air temperature is given. The retreat of largest glacier of Georgia Lekhziri and shrinking of its area is revised according to the years. The height gradient and correlation between the air temperature data of the only meteorological station (Mestia) of region and air temperature data of the glacier Chalaati in 2011 is determined. The time series of air temperature for Chalaati glacier in 1906-2011 are restored by the using of transfer function. The surface ablation of Chalaati glacier is also calculated. During the study we used a 1:42 000 scale topographic maps of the 19th century, which were drawn up during the first topographic survey by using the plane-table surveying method. Also, we used the catalog of the glaciers of the southern slope of the Caucasus compiled in 1911 by a well-known researcher of the Caucasus K. Podozerskiy, which is drawn up on the basis of the 19th century maps. In order to identify the area and number of the glaciers of the 60s of the 20th century, we used the work of R. Gobejishvili – the Georgian glaciologist of the 20-21st centuries, composed on the basis of 1:50 000 scale topographic maps of 1960. The data of 2014 have been obtained by the Landsat aerial images of L5 TM (Thematic Mapper) taken in August 2014. In the mentioned study, except of the old topographic maps and aerial images we use the climate information of the Mestia weather station.
Levan G. Tielidze,
Glaciers Retreat and Climate Change Effect During the Last One Century in the Mestiachala River Basin, Caucasus Mountains, Georgia, Earth Sciences.
Vol. 4, No. 2,
2015, pp. 72-79.
Gregory J. M., White, N. J., Church, J. A., Bierkens, M. F. P., Box, J. E., van den Broeke, M. R., Cogley, J. G., Fettweis, X., Hanna, E., Huybrechts, P., Konikow, L. F., Leclercq, P. W., Marzeion, B., Oerlemans, J., Tamisiea, M. E., Wada, Y., Wake, L. M., and van de Wal, R. S. W.: Twentieth-century global-mean sea-level rise: is the whole greater than the sum of the parts?, J.Climate, 26, 4476–4499, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00319.1, 2013.
Zemp M., Haeberli W., (2014) Glaciers and Ice caps. p.116.
Leclercq P. W., Oerlemans J., Basagic H. J., Bushueva I., Cook A. J. and Le Bris R. A data set of worldwide glacier length ﬂuctuations. The Cryosphere, 8, 659–672, 2014.
Carrivick J. L., and Chase S. E., (2011) Spatial and temporal variability of annual glacier equilibrium line altitudes in the Southern Alps, New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Geol. Geophys., 54(4), 415–429 (doi: 10.1080/00288306.2011.607463)
Radic V. and Hock R. (2011) Regionally differentiated contribution of mountain glaciers and ice caps to future sea-level rise. Natur.Geosci., 4(2), 91–94 (doi: 10.1038/ngeo1052)
Marzeion B., Jarosch A.H. and Hofer M. (2012) Past and future sealevel change from the surface mass balance of glaciers. Cryosphere, 6(6), 1295–1322 (doi: 10.5194/tc-6-1295-2012)
Slangen A. B. A., Katsman C. A., Van de Wal R. S. W., Vermeersen LLA and Riva REM (2012) Towards regional projections of twenty-first century sea-level change based on IPCC SRES scenarios. Climate Dyn., 38(5–6), 1191–1209 (doi: 10.1007/s00382-011-1057-6)
Radic V., Bliss A., Beedlow A. C., Hock R., Miles and Cogley J. G., (2014) Regional and global projection of twenty-first century glacier mass change in response to climate scenarios from global climate models. Climate Dyn. 42 (1-2), 37-58 (doi: 10.1007/s00382-013-1719-7)
Oerlemans J. and J. P. F. Fortuin. 1992. Sensitivity of glaciers andsmall ice caps to greenhouse warming. Science, 258(5079),115-117.
Haeberli W., M. Maisch and F. Paul. 2002. Mountain glaciers inglobal climate-related observation networks. WMO Bull., 51(1),18-25.
Solomon S. and 7 others, eds. 2007. Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, etc., Cambridge University Press.
Dyurgerov M. (2003), Mountain and sub-polar glaciers show an increase in sensitivity to climatic warming and intensification of the water cycle, J. Hydrol., 282, 164–176.
Tielidze L. G. 2014. Glaciers of Georgia, Monograph. Publ. ,,Color’’ 254 p. ISBN 978-9941-0-6809-6 (in Georgian).
Kotlyakov V. M., Dyakova A. M., Koryakin V. S., Kravtsova V. I., Osipova G. B., Varnakova G. M., Vinogradov V. N., Vinogradov O. N. and Zverkova N. M. (2010) Glaciers of the former Soviet Union. In: Williams, R. S. Jnr and Ferrigno, J.G., (eds.) Satellite image atlas of glaciers of the world - Glaciers of Asia: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386–F-4 (doi:1386-F-4)
Kordzakhia R. 1967. Enguri and Tskhenistskhali river basins climate features within the Svaneti. Acts of Georgian Geographical Society. Vol. IX-X. p. 110-125. (in Georgian).
Podozerskiy K. I. (1911). Glaciers of the Caucasus Mountain Range. “Zap. KORGO”, vol. 14, issue 1, (in Russian ).
Gobejishvili R. G. 1989. Glaciers of Georgia. Monograph. Publ. "Metsniereba". (In Russian).
Raup B., A. Kaeaeb, J. Kargel, M.P. Bishop, G.S. Hamilton, E. Lee, F. Rau, F. Paul, D. Soltesz, S.J. Singh Kalsa, M. Beedle & C. Helm. 2007. Remote Sensing and GIS technology in the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) Project. Computers and Geoscience, 33, 104-125.
Gobejishvili R. G., Tielidze L. G., Lomidze N. N, Javakhishvili A. 2012. Monitoring of Glaciers on the background of Climate change. Monograph, Publ. "Universali" 176 p. (in Georgian).
Hock R., 1999. A distributed temperature-index ice and snowmelt model including potential direct solar radiation, Journal of Glaciology, 45(149), 101–111.