Heavy Metals Contamination in Soils and Water in the Vicinity of Small Scale Gold Mines at Londoni and Sambaru, Singida Region, Tanzania
International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 3, Issue 6, December 2015, Pages: 397-403
Received: Sep. 29, 2015;
Accepted: Oct. 21, 2015;
Published: Dec. 7, 2015
Views 3926 Downloads 140
Asantael Herman, Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, University of Dodoma, Dodoma, Tanzania
Charles Kihampa, Department of Environmental Science and Management, Ardhi University, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
This study was carried out to determine the concentration of heavy metals in water and soils in the vicinity of mines and processing units in small scale mining areas at Londoni and Sambaru. Heavy metals concentrations ranging from 1.7 to 53.8 mg/kg dry soil weight (dw), 8.7 to 22.24 mg/kg dw, 0.42 to 2.61mg/kg dw and 3.19 to 29.42 mg/kg dw were detected for Hg, Pb, Zn and Cu, respectively. Concentration of the same metals detected in surface and groundwater samples ranged from 0.013 to 0.17mg/L. Concentrations of mercury detected in soil samples were above Tanzanian maximum limits of mercury contamination. Sources of the metals contaminations were envisaged to be amalgamation and burning activities, improper waste rocks and tailings disposal, discharge of mine water to the surroundings and leachates from waste rocks and tailings. The study concluded that immediate adverse effect may not be feasible but continuing contamination may lead to serious human health and environmental problems.
Heavy Metals Contamination in Soils and Water in the Vicinity of Small Scale Gold Mines at Londoni and Sambaru, Singida Region, Tanzania, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis.
Vol. 3, No. 6,
2015, pp. 397-403.
Jerie S. and Sibanda E. The environmental effects on effluents disposal at gold mines in Zimbabwe. A case study of Tiger reef mine in Kwekwe. J. Sustainable development in Africa, 2010, 12: 51-69.
Akabzaa T. Boom and dislocation.The environmental and social impacts of mining in the Wassa West District of Ghana.Accra, Third World Network Africa, 2000.
Ajusa, J. A review of refractory ore processes, A and B metallurgical consultants, Kwekwe, Zimbabwe, 2003.
Hentschel, T., Hruschka, F. and Priester, M. Artisanal and small scale mining. Challenges and Opportunities, 2003.
Diaz, E. Mercury pollution at gold mining sites in the Amazon environment. Principle of environmental toxicology, University of Idaho, 2000.
Idowu O. S., Adelakun, K. M., Osaguona P and Ajayi J. Mercury contamination in artisanal gold mining area of Manyera river, Niger state Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Research and Management, 2013, 4(9): 326-333.
Adler, R and Rascher, J. A strategy for the management of acid mine drainage from gold mines in Gauteng. Report. No.CSIR/NRE/PW/ER/2007/0053/C.CSIR, Pretoria, 2007.
Gunson, A.J., Thompson, M., Baker, R., Veiga, M., Spiegel, S and Cannon, M. Environmental and Health Assessment Report: Removal of Barriers to the Introduction of Cleaner: Artisanal Gold Mining and Extraction Technologies. Vienna: United Nations Industrial Development Organization, 2006.
Appleton, J. D., Taylor, H., Lister, T. R., Smith, B., Drasch G and Reilly S. Final report for an assessment of the environment and health in the Rwamagaza area, Tanzania. UNIDO Project EG/GLO/01/G34. British geological survey, 2014.
Bitala, M., Kweyunga C and Makono, M. Levels of heavy metals and cyanide in soil, sediment and water from the vicinity of North Mara Gold Mine in Tarime District, Tanzania, 2009.
Telmer, F. Trends in Gold Mining in the Developing World. Challenges and Outcomes Quito, Ecuador, 2006.
Adams, V. D. Water and Wastewater examination manual, Lewis Publishers Inc, USA, 1991.
Carter, M. R and Gregorich, E. G. Soil sampling and methods of analysis. Canadian Society of soil Science, Tailor & Francis Group, LLC, 2008.
Mwegoha, W.J. and Kihampa C. Heavy metal contamination in agricultural soils and water in Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2010, 4(11): 763-769.
Mico, C., Peris, M., Recatala, L and Sanchez, J. Baseline valued for heavy metal in agricultural soils in European Mediterranean region. Sci. Total Environ, 2007, 378: 13-17.
Machiwa, J. Heavy metal levels in paddy soils and rice (ORYZA SATIVA (L)) from wetlands of Lake Victoria basin, Tanzania. Tanz. J. Sci, 2010, 36(2010).
Ina S., Iryna, K., Marie, H., Claudia, L., Frauke, W and Ingo K. How healthy is urban horticulture in high traffic areas? Trace metal concentrations in vegetable crops from plantings within inner city neighbourhoods in Berlin, Germany. Journal of Environmental Pollution, Elsevier, 2012, 165: 124-132.
Tanzania Standards for Receiving Water, Effluents and soils (TZS 789:2003). Tanzania Bureau of Standards.
Mami, A and Mark J. H. Minamata as Negative Heritage: Implications for Fukushima, 2013.
Dara, S. A Text book of Environmental chemistry and Pollution. S. Chand and Company Ltd., New Delhi, 2009.