Radionuclide Concentrations in Some Fruit Juices Produced and Consumed in Lagos, Nigeria
American Journal of Environmental Protection
Volume 2, Issue 2, April 2013, Pages: 37-41
Received: Apr. 3, 2013;
Published: Apr. 2, 2013
Views 3506 Downloads 238
A. E. Adeniji, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nigeria, Nsukka
O. O. Alatise, Department of Physics, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria.
A. C. Nwanya, National Center for Energy Research and Development, University of Nigeria, Nsukka
A total of seven samples of bottled fruit juice produced and consumed in Nigeria were used for the study. The average concentrations of radionuclides contained in some bottled fruit juice produced and consumed in Nigeria and also exported to neighboring countries have been estimated by means of scintillation detector which is sodium Iodide activated with thallium (Na (Ti)). The radionuclides observed with reliable regularity belonged to the series – decay naturally occur-ring radionuclides headed by 238U and 232Th as well as the non- series decay type, 40K. The average specific activity values obtained for 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K, respectively, were 16.44 ± 5.91, 13.64 ± 3.99 and 163.21 ± 49.00 Bq/kg. It was observed that man made radionucldes suchas 137Cs and 90Sr were not detected in any of the bottled fruit juices which might be due to the countermeasures applied. The activity concentrations of each of the naturally occurring radionucldes in the bottled fruit juice were much lower than those recommended by the regulatory bodies. Thus, the contribution from these radionuclides does not pose any significant radiological health problem to the consumers.
A. E. Adeniji,
O. O. Alatise,
A. C. Nwanya,
Radionuclide Concentrations in Some Fruit Juices Produced and Consumed in Lagos, Nigeria, American Journal of Environmental Protection.
Vol. 2, No. 2,
2013, pp. 37-41.
M. A. Misdaq, H. Ezzahery, D. Elabboubi, "Determination of equivalent dose rates and committed effective doses in the respiratory system from the inhalation of radon decay products by using SSNTD and a dosimetric compartmental model". Radiat. Prot. Dosim., 2001b, Vol. 93, pp 347–355.
I. M. Fisenne, P. M. Perry, K. M. Decker, H. K. Keller, "The Daily Intake of 234,235,238U, 228,230,232Th, and 226,228Ra by New York City Residents," Health Phys, 1987, Vol. 53, pp. 357-363.
K. Shiraishi, K. Tagami, Y. Muramastu, M. Yamamoto "Contributions of 18 food categories to intake of 232Th and 238U in Japan". Health Phys, 2000, Vol.78, No1, pp 28-36.
C. Kuwahara, K. Koyama, H. Sugiyama, "Estimation of daily Uranium ingestion by Urban residents in Japan". J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 1997, Vol. 220, pp 161.
A. A. Tawalbeh, S.B. Samat, M.S. Yasir, M. Omar, "Radio-logical Impact Of Drinks Intakes Of Naturally Occurring Radionuclides On Adults Of Central Zone Of Malaysia". The Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences, 2012, Vol. 16, No 2, pp187 – 193.
M. Eisenbud, T. Gesell "Environmental Radioactivity from Natural Industrial and Military Sources". 4th ed., Academic Press An Imprint of Elsevier, 1997.
B. Delvau, N. Kruyts, E. Maes, E. Smolders, "Trace elements in the rhizosphere". In: G.R. Gobran, W.W. Wenzel, and E. Lombin, (Eds.), Fate of Radiocesium in Soil and Rhizosphere. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2000, pp. 61-91.
P.J. White, M. R. Broadley, "Mechanisms of caesium uptake by plants". New Phytologist, 2000, Vol.147, pp 241-256.
Y.G. Zhu, E. Smolders, "Plant uptake of radiocaesium: a review of mechanisms, regulation and application". Journal of Experimental Botany, 2000, Vol.51, pp 1635-1645.
C.J. Atkinson, A.D.Webster, "The influence of the develop-ment of temperate fruit tree species on the potential for their uptake of radionuclides". Journal of Environmental Ra-dioactivity, 2001, 52, pp 131-146.
P.Kopp, W.Görlich, W.Burkart, H.J. Zehnder, "Foliar uptake of radionuclides and their distribution in the plant", Pro-ceedings of environmental contamination following a major nuclear accident, IAEA, Vienna, 1990, Vol. 2, pp 37.
F. Carini, "Radionuclides in plants bearing fruits: an over-view". Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 1999, Vol. 46, No1, pp 77- 97.
M. A Misdaq, A Mortassim. "The influence of the nature of soil and plant and pollution on the 238U, 232Th, 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations in various natural honey samples using nuclear track detectors: Impact on the adult consumers", PRAMANA journal of physics November , 2009, Vol. 73, No. 5, pp. 859- 879.
J.B.Olomo, M.K. Akinloye, F.A. Balogun, "Distribution of gamma-emitting natural radionuclide in soils and water around nuclear research establishments, Ile Ife, Nigeria". Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. Sect. A Accelerators, Spectro-meters, Detectors Assoc. Equipment, 1994, Vol.353, pp 553-557.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) "Measurement of Radionuclides in Food and the Environment". IAEA Technical Report 295. IAEA, Vienna Austria, 1989.
P. Tchokossa, J.B. Olomo, O.A. Osibote, "Radioactivity in the community water supplies of Ife-Central and Ife-East local government areas of Osun State, Nigeria", Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. Sect. A, 1999, Vol.422, pp 784-789.
G.J.Ham, L.W. Ewers, B.T. Wilkins, "Variations in Concen-trations of Naturally Occuring Radionuclides in Foodstuffs". NRPB–M892, Oxon, 1998, pp 49.
United Nations, Report of Scientific Committee on the effects of radiation, Seventeenth Session, 1962, No 16.
National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, "Environmental radiation measurements", NCRP Report No. 50, NCRP Bethesda, MD.
P.A. Colgan , C. Organo, C. Hone, D. Fenton, "Radiation doses received by the Irish population", Radiological pro-tection institute of Ireland, 2008.
O.A. Osibote, J.B. Olomo, P. Tchokossa, F.A. Balogun Ra-dioactivity in milk consumed in Nigeria 10 years after Chernobyl reactor accident, Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. Sect. A, 1999, Vol.422 , pp 778-783.
N. GREEN, "The effect of storage and processing on radio-nuclide content of fruit, Journal of Environmental Radioac-tivity", 2001, Vol.52, pp 281-290.
Rodos: Decision support system for off-site nuclear emer-gency management in Europe (EHRHARDT, J., WEIS, A., Eds.) Report EUR 19144, ISBN No.92-828-9773-7, 2000, pp 259.
V. Kashparov, S. Conney, S. Uchida, S. Fesenko, V. Krasnov, "FOOD PROCESSING. A review of available data, Quanti-fication of Radionuclide Transfer in Terrestrial and Fresh-water Environments for Radiological Assessments", IAEA-TECDOC-1616, Vienna , 2009, pp 577-597.
J.I.Richards, R.J. Hance "Agricultural countermeasures", IAEA Bulletin (IAEA), 0020-6067, 1996, Vol. 38, No.3, pp 38-43.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration, "FDA Total Diet Study" (INTERNET): www.cfsan.fda.gov/~lrd/pestadd.html,1999.
Codex Guideline, Codex Alimentarius Commission. Conta-minants: Guideline Levels for Radionuclides in Food fol-lowing Accidental Nuclear Contamination for Use in Inter-national Trade. Suppleiuentl to Codex Aliinentarius Volume XVII, 1st ed. Rome: Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Pro-gramme, 1989.
H.D. Belitz, W. Grosch, P. Schieberle, Food Chemistry 4th revised and extended ed., 2009, XLIV, 1070, pp. 481 illus. With 923
H. Velasco, A.S. Cid, R.M. Anjos, C.B. Zamboni, M. Riz-zotto, D.L. Valladares, J. Juri Ayub, "Variability of 137Cs and 40K soil-to-fruit transfer factor in tropical lemon trees during the fruit development period", Journal of Environ-mental Radioactivity, 2012, Vol.104, , pp 64-70.