Assessment of Technical and Economic Feasibility of Activated Charcoal Removal of Organic Matter from Different Streams of Grey Water Through Study of Adsorption Isotherms
American Journal of Environmental Protection
Volume 5, Issue 3, June 2016, Pages: 56-64
Received: May 6, 2016;
Accepted: May 16, 2016;
Published: May 30, 2016
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Ababu T. Tiruneh, Department of Environmental Health Science, University of Swaziland, Mbabane, Swaziland
Amos O. Fadiran, Department of Chemistry, University of Swaziland, Kwaluseni, Swaziland
William N. Ndlela, Department of Environmental Health Science, University of Swaziland, Mbabane, Swaziland
Jonna Heikkilä, Turku University of Applied Sciences, Turku, Finland
The feasibility of household level treatment of grey water with activated charcoal was performed using laboratory batch adsorption testing on locally available charcoal media. The study results indicated that the potential for removal of organic matter was significantly high for the high pH cloth wash water compared to the low pH kitchen wastewater which also contained non-adsorbed organics. The addition of ash considerably improved the removal and projected life length of adsorption media for kitchen wastewater treatment. The adsorption isotherms obtained were all modeled adequately using the Freundlich isotherm while the isotherm shapes display different types of adsorption for the different streams of grey water because of the heterogeneous nature of the adsorbates in grey water. The replacement life length of activated charcoal for single drum household level treatment ranged between 7 and 15 months. For family daily flow rates up to 400 lit/day, the replacement costs of a single drum charcoal per cubic meter of grey water treated were calculated to be below the current tariff levels for acquiring water in cities in Swaziland. A considerable part of the grey water pollutant can be removed through pretreatment by sorption alone such as by filtration through sand or other cheap media before adsorption. For complete household level treatment of grey water, a three-step treatment consisting of sand pre-filtration, activated charcoal adsorption and sand post-filtration are recommended.
Ababu T. Tiruneh,
Amos O. Fadiran,
William N. Ndlela,
Assessment of Technical and Economic Feasibility of Activated Charcoal Removal of Organic Matter from Different Streams of Grey Water Through Study of Adsorption Isotherms, American Journal of Environmental Protection.
Vol. 5, No. 3,
2016, pp. 56-64.
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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