Glaciers Dynamics Over the Last One Century in the Kodori River Basin, Caucasus Mountains, Georgia, Abkhazeti
American Journal of Environmental Protection
Volume 4, Issue 3-1, May 2015, Pages: 22-28
Received: Feb. 4, 2015;
Accepted: Feb. 5, 2015;
Published: Jun. 25, 2015
Views 2158 Downloads 46
Levan G. Tielidze, Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography, Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Tbilisi, Georgia
Lela Gadrani, Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography, Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Tbilisi, Georgia
Mariam Tsitsagi, Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography, Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Tbilisi, Georgia
Nino Chikhradze, Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography, Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Tbilisi, Georgia; Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia
This paper considers the last one century’s dynamics of the glaciers in the Kodori River basin, which is located on the southern slope of the Greater Caucasus in Georgia. The latest statistical information is also given about the glaciers located in the individual river basins; Their morphological types, exposition and the dynamics are considered according to the individual years. In our research, we used the Catalogue of the glaciers of Georgia compiled by K. Podozerskiy in 1911. We also used the military topographic maps with the scale of 1:25 000 and 1:50 000 drawn up in 1960, where there are mapped in detail the glaciers and the ends of their ice tongues on the southern slope of Greater Caucasus of those times. We also used the remote sensing method, which is the best modern way for the study of the dynamics of glaciers and this method is remarkable by a quick obtaining of results. The spectral images of the Landsat L5/TM and ASTER L1/A are the necessary materials for our study. As a result of the use of this method, we have identified the dynamics of the glaciers in the Kodori River basin.
Levan G. Tielidze,
Glaciers Dynamics Over the Last One Century in the Kodori River Basin, Caucasus Mountains, Georgia, Abkhazeti, American Journal of Environmental Protection. Special Issue:Applied Ecology: Problems, Innovations.
Vol. 4, No. 3-1,
2015, pp. 22-28.
Kaltenborn B.P., Nellemann C., Vistnes I.I. (Eds). (2010). High mountain glaciers and climate change - Challenges to human livelihoods and adaptation. United Nations Environment Programme, GRID-Arendal, http://www.grida.no
Tielidze L. G. (2014). Glaciers of Georgia, Monography, Publ. "Color" 254 p. Tbilisi. (in Georgian).
Kotlyakov V.M., Dyakova A.M., Koryakin V.S., Kravtsova V.I., Osipova G.B., Varnakova G.M., Vinogradov V.N., Vinogradov O.N. and Zverkova N.M. (2010). Glaciers of the former Soviet Union. In: Williams, R.S. Jnr and Ferrigno, J.G., (eds.) Satellite image atlas of glaciers of the world - Glaciers of Asia: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386–F-4 (doi:1386-F-4)
Tielidze, L.G., Gadrani, L. and Kumladze, R. (2015) A One Century Record of Changes at Nenskra and Nakra River Basins Glaciers, Causasus Mountains, Georgia. Natural Science, 7, 151-157. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ns.2015.73017
Gobejishvili R.G. (2011). Relief of Georgia, Monography, Publ. ,,Universali’’ 258 p. (in Georgian).
Bayr K.J., D.K. Hall and W.M. Kovalick (1994). Observations on glaciers in the eastern Austrian Alps using satellite data. Int. J. Remote Sensing, 15(9), 1733-1752.
Paul F. (2000). Evaluation of different methods for glacier mapping using Landsat TM. In Proceedings of EARSeL SIG Workshop, Land Ice and Snow, June 16–17, 2000, Dresden, Germany. Paris, European Association of Remote-Sensing Laboratories Special Interest Group Land Ice and Snow, 239-245.
Paul F. (2002). Changes in glacier area in Tyrol, Austria, between 1969 and 1992 derived from Landsat TM and Austrian glacier inventory data. Int. J. Remote Sensing, 23(4), 787–799.
Paul F., C. Huggel, A. Kaab, T. Kellenberger and Maisch M. (2002). Comparison of TM-derived glacier areas with higher resolution data sets. In Proceedings of EARSeL LISSIG Workshop, Observing our Cryosphere from Space, March 11–13, 2002, Bern, Switzerland. Paris, European Association of Remote-Sensing Laboratories Special Interest Group Land Ice and Snow, 15–21.
Shahgedanova M., Nosenko G., Kutuzov S., Rototaeva O. and Khromova T. (2014). Deglaciation of the Caucasus Mountains, Russia/Georgia, in the 21st century observed with ASTER satellite imagery and aerial photography The Cryosphere, 8, 2367–2379, doi:10.5194/tc-8-2367-2014
Podozerskiy K.I. (1911). Glaciers of the v Caucasus Mountain Range. “Zap. KORGO”, vol. 14, issue 1, (in Russian ).
Tabidze D. (1965). Geomorphology of Kodori River basin. Thesis for a Phd’s degree, 120 p. Tbilisi. (in Russian).
Gobejishvili R.G. (1995). Present day glaciers of Georgia and evolution of glaciation in the mountains of Eurasia in late Pleistocene and Holocene. Thesis for a Doctor’s degree, 320 p. Tbilisi. (in Georgian).
Gobejishvili, R., N. Lomidze, and L. Tielidze (2011), Late Pleistocene (Wurmian) glaciations of the Caucasus, in Quaternary Glaciations: Extent and Chronology, edited by J. Ehlers, P. L. Gibbard, and P. D. Hughes, pp. 141–147, Elsevier, Amsterdam. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-444-53447-7.00012-X