Variations in Forest Carbon Stocks Along Environmental Gradients in Egdu Forest of Oromia Region, Ethiopia: Implications for Sustainable Forest Management
Forests play a significant role in climate change mitigation by sequestering and storing more carbon from the atmosphere than any other terrestrial ecosystem. Although a number of studies have been done on carbon stock estimations, the influence of environmental factors on forest carbon stocks has not been properly addressed. This study was conducted to estimate the carbon stock and its variation along the altitudinal gradients in Egdu dry afromontane forest found in Oromia Regional State of Ethiopia. The carbon stock in the different carbon pools and analysis of the influence of the environmental variables were studied by collecting data in sixty-nine quadrat plots of 10 x 20 m distributed along transect lines. To estimate carbon in above and below ground biomass; each tree in the study site having diameter at breast height (DBH) of ≥ 5 cm were measured for DBH and height. Above ground biomass was estimated by using allometric model while below ground biomass was determined based on the ratio of below ground biomass to above ground biomass factors. The mean total carbon stock density of Egdu Forest was found to be 614.72 ± 35.79 t ha-1 (ranging from 182.6 to1416 t ha-1), of which 45.24% of carbon was contained in the above ground biomass, 9.05% in below ground biomass, 0.56% in litter carbon and 45.15% was stored in soil organic carbon (0-30 cm depth). The carbon stocks in above ground biomass, below ground biomass, litter biomass and soil organic carbon exhibited distinct patterns along environmental gradients (slope gradient and slope aspect). The analysis of carbon stock variation of different carbon pools on eight different aspects of the forest area showed a significant variation with exception of soil organic carbon stock. The amount of carbon stock in above and below ground biomass, soil organic carbon and the total carbon stock was higher on the northern aspect as compared to other aspects. On the other hand, the carbon density of the forest carbon pool components showed a negative correlation with slope gradient; with increasing % slope, the above and below ground carbon, soil organic carbon and the total carbon stock decreased. This study concluded that the carbon stock value of Egdu Forest is large, and the carbon storage in different carbon pools of the forest area varies with slope aspect and slope aspect.
Adugna Feyissa Gubena,
Variations in Forest Carbon Stocks Along Environmental Gradients in Egdu Forest of Oromia Region, Ethiopia: Implications for Sustainable Forest Management, American Journal of Environmental Protection. Special Issue: Forest Ecosystem Carbon Stock Variation Along Altitudinal and Slope Gradient .
Vol. 6, No. 1-1,
2017, pp. 1-8.
Waverley, S, “Waverley Borough Council Climate Change Action Plan” Change Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories”, Waverley’s Initiative for a Sustainable Environment publishing, 2006.
IPCC, “Facts on climatic change”, A summary of the assessment report of IPCC: Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007.
T. M. L. Wigley, “Climate change and forestry”, Common Wealth Forestry Review 72: 256- 264, 1993.
Petit, J., Jouzel, J., Raynauud, D., Barkov, N. I., Barnola, J. M., Basile, I., Bender, M., Chappelaz, J., Davis, M., Delaygue, G. and Delmote, M., “Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core in Antarctica”, Nature 339: 429-436, 1999.
Sharma, C. M., Gairola S., Baduni, N. P., Ghildiyal, S. K., and Suyal, S., “Variation in carbon stocks on different slope aspects in seven major forest types of temperate region of Garhwal Himalaya”, Journal of Bioscience 36:701–708, 2011.
Broadmeadow, M. and Robert, M., “Forests, Carbon and Climate Change”, The UK Contribution: Edinburgh, UK: Forestry Commission Bulletin 125, 2003
Jandl, R., Rasmussen, K., Tomé, M. and Johnson, D. W., “The role of Forests in carbon Cycles, Sequestration and Storage” Vienna, Austria: Forest management and carbon sequestration, 2006.
Tesfaye Bekele, “Plant Population Dynamics of Dodonea angustifolia and Olea europea subsp. cuspidata in dry Afromontane Forest of Ethiopia”, Acta Universtitatis upsaliens Upssala, Sweden, 2002.
Ethiopian Forestry Action Program (EFAP), “The challenge for development”, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 1994.
Demel Teketay, “Deforestation, Wood Famine, and Environmental Degradation in Ethiopia's Highland Ecosystems: Urgent Need for Action”: Forest Stewardship Council (FSC Africa), Kusami, Ghana, Northeast African Studies 8, 53-76. 2001.
McEwan, W. R., Lin, Y., Sun, I. F., Hsieh, C., Su, S., Chang, L., Song, G. M., Wange, H., Hwong, J., Lin, K., Yang, K., Chiang, J., “Topographic and biotic regulation of aboveground carbon storage in subtropical broad-leaved forests of Taiwan”, Forest Ecology and Management 262, 1817–1825, 2011.
Valencia, R., Condit, R., Muller-Landau, H. C., Hernandez, C., Navarrete, H., “Dissecting biomass dynamics in a large Amazonian forest plot” Journal of Tropical Ecology 25, 473–482, 2009.
Bruun, H. H., Moen, J., Virtanen, R., Grytnes, J. A., Oksanen, L., Angerbjo¨rn, A. Ezcurra, E., “Effects of altitude and topography on species richness of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens in alpine communities”, Journal of Vegetation Science 17, 37–46, 2009.
Holland, P. G., and Steyn, D. G., “Vegetational responses to latitudinal variations in slope angle and aspect” Journal of Biogeography, 2, 179–183, 1975.
Kent, M. and Coker, P., “Vegetation Description and Analysis”: A practical approach, Bolhaven Printing Press, London, 363 pp, 1992.
Brown, S. A. J., Gillespie, J.R. and Lugo, A.E., “Biomass estimation methods for tropical forests with application to forest inventory data”, Forest Science, 35(4), 881–902, 1989.
MacDicken, K. G., “A Guide to Monitoring Carbon Storage in Forestry and Agro-forestry Projects”, In: Forest Carbon Monitoring Program, Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development, Arlington, Virginia, 87 Pp, 1997.
Allen S. E., Grimshaw H. M. and Rowland, A. P., “Chemical analysis”. In: Methods in plant ecology (Moore, P. D., Chapman, S. B. eds), Blackwell Scientific Publications, London, UK, 285-344, 1986.
Pearson, T., Walker, S. and Brown, S., “Sourcebook for land-use, land-use change and forestry projects”, Winrock International and the Bio-carbon fund of the World Bank, Arlington, USA, 19-35, 2005.
Mesfin Sahile, “Estimating and Mapping of Carbon Stocks based on Remote Sensing, GIS and Ground Survey in the Menagesha Suba State Forest, M.Sc. Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 2011.
Tulu Tolla, “Estimation of Carbon Stock in Church Forests: Implications for Managing Church Forest for Carbon Emission Reduction”, M.Sc. Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 2011.
Murphy, P.G. and Lugo, A. E., “Structure and biomass production of a dry tropical forest in Puerto Rico”, Biotropica 18: 89-96, 1986.
IPCC (International Panel on Climate Change), “Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry, Special Report, IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 2000.
Fisher, R.F. and Binkley, D., “Ecology and Management of Forest Soils”, John Willey & Sons, Inc, New York, USA, 2000.
Brady, N. C., “The Nature and Properties of Soils”; 8th ed., Macmillan, New York, 1974.
Sheikh, M. A., Kumar, M. and Rainer, W. and Bussmann, R.W., “Altitudinal variation in soil organic carbon stock in coniferous subtropical and broadleaf temperate forests in Garhwal Himalaya”, Department of Forestry, HNB Garhwal University, Srinagar Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India, Carbon Balance management 4: 1-6, 2009.
Bayat, T. A. “Carbon Stock in an Apennine Beech Forest”, M.Sc. Thesis, University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands, 2007.
Abiyou Tilahun, “Floristic composition, structure and regeneration status of Menagesha Amba Mariam Forest, central Highland of Shewa”, M.Sc. Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 2010.
Zhu, B., Xiangping Wang, Jingyun Fang, Shilong Piao, Haihua Shen, Shuqing Zhao, Changhui Peng, “Altitudinal changes in carbon storage of temperate forests on Mt Changbai, Northeast China”, Journal of Plant Resource 10, 1-14, 2011.
Maggi, O., Persiani, M. A., Casado, M. A. and Pineda, F. D., “Effects of elevation, slope position and livestock exclusion on microfungi isolated from soils of Mediterranean grasslands”: The Mycological Society of America, Lawrence, Mycologia 97(5): 984–995, 2005.
Branch, O., “Assessing Soil Carbon Stocks in the Mae Sa Noi Sub-watershed”, M. Sc Thesis, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, German, 2010.
Adugna Feyissa, Teshome Soromessa., and Mekuria Argaw, “Forest carbon stocks and variations along altitudinal gradients in Egdu Forest: Implications of managing forests for climate change mitigation”, Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal, 2(4), 40–46, 2013.