Design and Computational Fluid Dynamic Modeling of a Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator for Kampala City, Uganda
American Journal of Energy Engineering
Volume 2, Issue 3, May 2014, Pages: 80-86
Received: Apr. 9, 2014;
Accepted: May 7, 2014;
Published: May 20, 2014
Views 1970 Downloads 192
F. Ayaa, Department of Agricultural and Bio-Systems Engineering, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
P. Mtui, Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Dar-es-Salaam, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania
N. Banadda, Department of Agricultural and Bio-Systems Engineering, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
J. Van Impe, Department of Chemical Engineering, Ku Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
Follow on us
In Uganda, the government targeted to produce at least 15 MW from Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW) by end of 2012, which was not achieved. It is against this background that this project’s twofold objective is to explore the energy potential of MSW in Kampala and design an environmentally friendly waste-to-energy incinerator for electricity generation. The obtained waste characterization results show that the average composition of MSW in Kampala city varied as follows: food and yard waste, 90.64 %; papers, 1.67 %; plastics, 1.77 %; polyethylene, 2.99 %; textiles, 0.59 %; glass, 1.16 %; metals, 0.15 % and others 1.03 %. The proximate analysis of the food and yard waste component indicated volatile matter of 73.29 %; fixed carbon of 4.36 %; moisture of 8.49 % and ash of 13.86 %. Furthermore, the ultimate analysis of the MSW on dry basis yielded Carbon 22.58 %; Hydrogen 3.22 %; Oxygen 14.06 %; Nitrogen 1.56 %; Sulphur 0.24 % and Ash 58.33 %. The Lower Heating Value (LHV) and Higher Heating value (HHV) of the MSW were 9.49 MJ/kg and 10.19 MJ/kg on dry basis respectively. The HHV and LHV of the food and yard waste determined from the bomb calorimeter was 15.11 MJ/kg and 14.68 MJ/kg, respectively. An incinerator was designed to suit the characteristics of the MSW and optimized using ANSYS Computational Fluid Dynamics (FLUENT Version 14, 2011). The total time needed to incinerate the waste was 31 minutes in comparison to 25 minutes for typical incinerators. The optimal capacity of the incinerator is also 460 kg/hr as opposed to the design capacity of 567 kg/hr.
Waste Characterization, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Municipal Waste, Incineration
To cite this article
J. Van Impe,
Design and Computational Fluid Dynamic Modeling of a Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator for Kampala City, Uganda, American Journal of Energy Engineering.
Vol. 2, No. 3,
2014, pp. 80-86.
ALENTEC. Computational fluid dynamics model-ing,applications for engineering solutions. [Online] [Cited:January16,2013.]http://www.alentecinc/com/papers/CFD/Statement%20of%20 Qualifica-tions-CFD.pdf.
Electricity Regulatory Authority. Constraints to investment in Uganda's electricity generation industry. [On-line]2008.[Cited:January16,2012.]http://www.era.or.ug/Pdf/constraints to invest-ment-In%20Generation.pdf.
Green, K. Industrial Ecology and Spaces of Innovation. [ed.] Sally Randles Kenneth Green. Massachusetts : Edward Elgar Publishing, 2006. ISBN-13:978 1 84 542097 0.
Golooba, M.F. "Devolution and outsourcing of municipal services in Kampala city, Uganda:An early assessment."2003. Vol. 23, pp. 405-18.
Howard, G., Pedleyb,S., Barrett, M., Na-lubega, M., Johal, K. "Risk factors contributing to microbi-ological contamination of shallow groundwater in Kampa-la,Uganda." 2003. Vol. 37.
Jessup, R.S. Precise measurement of heat of combustion with a bomb calorimeter. [Online] 1960. [Cited:November12,2012.]http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc13253/m2/1/high_res_d/NBS%20Monograph%207.pdf.
Kampala Capital City Authority. Services rendered by KCCA. www.kcca.go.ug. [Online] [Cited: February 1, 2013.]http://www.kcca.go.ug/services.php#waste management.
Kaseva, M.E. and Mbuligwe, S.E. "Appraisal of solid waste collection following private sector involvement in Dar-es-salaam city,Tanzania.". 2005. Vol. 29, pp. 353-366. DOI:10.1016/j.habitatint.2003.12.003.
Matagi, S.V. "Some issues of environmental concern in Kampala, the capital city of Uganda." 2002. Vol. 77, pp. 121-138.
Ministry of energy and mineral devel-opment. The renewable energy policy for Uganda. s.l. : Ministry of energy and mineral development, 2007.
Mugagga, F. The public-private sector ap-proach to municipal solid waste management. How does it work in Makindye division, Kampala district,Uganda? Norwegian university of science and technology. Trondheim : s.n., 2006. Doctoral dissertation.
National Envi-ronment Management Authority. "State of environment report for Uganda 2006/07.". Kampala : National Environment Management Authority, 2007.
Niessen, W.R. Combustion and incineration processes. Applications in En-vironmental engineering. 4th. s.l. : CRC press group, 2010.
—. Heat and material balance spreadsheets. Combustion and incineration processes. Applications in En-vironmental Engineering. [Software]. s.l. : CRC press group, 2010.
Ryu, C., Shin, D. and Choi, S. "Combined simulation of combustion and gas flow in a grate-type inci-nerator." Vol. 55., pp. 174-185.
US Army Corps of Engineers. Engineering and design incinerators mobilization construction. Engineering manual No.1110-3-176. Wash-ington DC. : US Army Corps of Engineers, 1984.
Zurbrügg, C. "Urban solid waste management in low-income countries of Asia, how to cope with the garbage crisis.". Durban, South Africa. : s.n., 2002.