International Journal of Sustainable and Green Energy
Volume 4, Issue 4-1, July 2015, Pages: 1-6
Received: Oct. 12, 2014;
Accepted: Oct. 31, 2014;
Published: Nov. 25, 2014
Views 3210 Downloads 347
U. V. S. Seshavatharam, Honorary faculty, I-SERVE, Alakapuri, Hyderabad-35, AP, India
S. Lakshminarayana, Dept. of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-03, AP, India
During E-CAT test run some hidden and unknown energy is being coming out in the form of heat energy in large quantity. Based on the principle of conservation of energy and from the well known nuclear fusion and fission reactions it is possible to guess that, the E-CAT hidden energy may be in the form of binding of protons and neutrons of the Nickel and Lithium atomic nuclei. By considering the nuclear binding energies of (58@28)Ni, (62@28)Ni and (7@3)Li an attempt is made to understand the energy liberation mechanism in E-CAT. With reference to the net energy production of (5825 ± 10%) Mega Joules liberated from one gram Ni of the E-CAT’s 32 days third party test run, it can be suggested that, for every transformation of (58@28)Ni to (62@28)Ni via(7@3)Li, liberated heat energy is 3.64 MeV and for one gram of (58@28)Ni liberated energy is 5984 Mega Joules. For each transformation of (58@28)Ni to (62@28)Ni via(7@3)Li, 3 hydrogen atoms can be expected to be emitted. Note that, energy liberated for one gram of (58@28)Ni in cold fusion is 1.66 MWh and energy liberated for one gram of (235@92)U in nuclear fission is 22.6 MWh. Clearly speaking, energy released in Nickel based E-CAT is just 13.6 times less than the energy released in Uranium fission.
U. V. S. Seshavatharam,
Nickel – the Ultimate Substitute of Coal, Oil and Uranium, International Journal of Sustainable and Green Energy. Special Issue:Current Research and Future of Renewable Energy.
Vol. 4, No. 4-1,
2015, pp. 1-6.
Bo Hoistad, Lars tegner, Roland Petterson, Hanno Essen, Giuseppe Levi, Evelyn Foschi: " Independent Third Party Report" on http://www.elforsk.se/LENR-matrapport-publicerad
Giuseppe Levi et al. Indication of anomalous heat energy production in a reactor device. arXiv:1305.3913
Giuseppe Levi et al. Observation of abundant heat production from a reactor device and of isotopic changes in the fuel. http://www.sifferkoll.se/sifferkoll/wpcontent/uploads/2014/10/LuganoReportSubmit.pdf (Oct 2014) http://www.e-catworld.com/2014/10/08/e-cat-report-released/ 8th October 2014
http://animpossibleinvention.com/2014/10/08/new-scientific-report-on-the-e-cat-shows-excess-heat-and-nuclear-process/#comments. 8th October 2014
Andrea Rossi. Method and Apparatus for carrying out nickel and hydrogen exothermal reactions. Patent application. WO2009125444 (A1) and US 201110005506 Al.
Andrea Rosi, Hydrogen Nickel LENR (Low Energy Nuclear Reaction) Andrea Rossi Cold Fusion - The E-Cat Energy Revolution. http://www.xvi-ncbc.com/news/hydrogen-nickel-lenr-low-energy-nuclear-reaction-andrea- rossi-cold-fusion-the-e-cat-energy-revolution.
Bruce V. Lewenstein. Cornell Cold Fusion Archive, collection no. 4451. Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library. 5th edition 31 August 1994.
Hugh G. Flyn, Method of generating energy by acoustically induced cavitation fusion and reactor therefore, US Patent 4,333,796 (filed 1978, issued 1982)
M. Fleischmann and S. J. Pons, Electroanal. Chem, 261, 301, (1989)
Marwan, J. et al. A new look at low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) research: a response to Shanahan. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 12.9 (2010): 1765.
Yeong E. Kim et al. Optical theorem formulation of low-energy nuclear reactions. PHYSICAL REVIEW C VOLUME 55, NUMBER 2 FEBRUARY 1997
Y.N. Srivastava et al. A primer for electroweak induced low-energy nuclear reactions. Pramana. Vol. 75, No. 4 pp.617-637 (2010)
V.I. Dubinko. Low energy nuclear reactions driven by discrete breathers. To be published in Journal of Condensed nuclear science.
Storms, E.K., The science of low energy nuclear reaction (World Scientific, Singapore, 2007).
Z. Sun and D. Tomanek, Cold Fusion: How Close Can Deuterium Atoms Come inside Palladium?, Phys. Rev. Letters 63 (1989) 59-61.
E. N. Tsyganov, Cold nuclear fusion, Physics of Atomic Nuclei, 75 (2012) 153–159
Cold Fusion. The history of research in Italy. Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment.
Stoyan Sarg Sargoytchev. Theoretical Feasibility of Cold Fusion According to the BSM - Supergravitation Unified Theory. Journal of nuclear physics. (Dec. 2013) http://www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com/
J. Schwinger, A progress Report: Energy Transfer in Cold Fusion and Sonoluminecsence, Infinite Energy, Issue 24, p. 19,(1999)
http://www.tcm.phy.cam.ac.uk/~bdj10/ (B. Josephson web page), http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EDv6phew-ck
Ph. M. Kanarev, and Tadahiko Mizuno, COLD FUSION BY PLASMA ELECTROLYSIS OF WATER. New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 January - February 2003 http://www.free-energy-info.tuks.nl/Issue10.pdf
Tadahiko Mizuno, Experimental Confirmation of the Nuclear Reaction at Low Energy Caused by Electrolysis in the Electrolyte, Proceedings for the Symposium on Advanced Research in Energy Technology 2000, Hokkaido University, March 15, 16 and 17, 2000, pp. 95-106
W.D. Myers and W.J. Swiatecki. Table of Nuclear Masses according to the 1994 Thomas-Fermi Model. LBL-36803.1994.
W.D. Myers & W.J. Swiatecki, Nuclear Properties According to the Thomas-Fermi Model, LBL-36557.1994.