Please enter verification code
Female Employment: A Way to National Wellbeing
Journal of World Economic Research
Volume 5, Issue 5, October 2016, Pages: 59-64
Received: Aug. 22, 2016; Accepted: Sep. 19, 2016; Published: Sep. 28, 2016
Views 2940      Downloads 118
Towfika Sultana, Department of Economics, Asian University for Women, Chittagong, Bangladesh
Iftekhar Uddin Ahmed Chowdhury, Access Academy, Asian University for Women, Chittagong, Bangladesh
Article Tools
Follow on us
‘Gender equality’ is a term which can be found almost in each and every sector of our modern lives. Female labor force participation is one of the most integral parts of development which should be brought into the limelight so that policymakers take the necessary actions to improve women’s situation all over the world. Increasing participation of female population contributes immensely in a nation’s development process. To explore more about this contribution, the paper aims to study the impact of female labor force participation rate on the overall national wellbeing of a country. To achieve this objective, World Bank databank is used as pioneer data source and panel econometric models are estimated for a sample of 58 countries over a 10 year period (2004-2013). In addition, this paper uses a dynamic model as an extension of the analysis to establish whether such an effect exists or not. While the results show the evidence of robust and significant pull effects, that is the positive impact on the national wellbeing of the female labor force participation rate in the host country. The paper also provides some policy recommendations in order to enhance the active participation of female labor force in the economy.
Female Employment, Fixed Effects, National Wellbeing, Panel Data
To cite this article
Towfika Sultana, Iftekhar Uddin Ahmed Chowdhury, Female Employment: A Way to National Wellbeing, Journal of World Economic Research. Vol. 5, No. 5, 2016, pp. 59-64. doi: 10.11648/j.jwer.20160505.12
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Beck, N., and J. N. Katz. “What to do (and not to do) with time-series cross-section data”. American Political Science Review 89 (1995): 634–647.
Duflo, Esther. “Women's empowerment and economic development”. No. w17702. National Bureau of Economic Research, 2011.
Greene, W. H. “Econometric Analysis”, New Jersey 07458 (Third edition) (1997).
Goldin, Claudia. The U-shaped female labor force function in economic development and economic history. No. w4707. National Bureau of Economic Research, 1994.
Lahoti, Rahul, and Hema Swaminathan. "Economic growth and female labour force participation in India." IIM Bangalore Research Paper 414 (2013).
Mundlak, Y. On the pooling of time series and cross section data, Econometrica, 46 (1978), 69-85.
Pampel, Fred C., and Kazuko Tanaka. "Economic development and female labor force participation: A reconsideration." Social forces 64.3 (1986): 599-619.
Semyonov, Moshe, and Yehouda Shenhav. "Investment dependence, economic development, and female employment opportunities in less developed countries." Social Science Quarterly 69.4 (1988): 961.
Sen A. “More Than 100 Million Women Are Missing”. The New York Review of Books, 1990.
Wooldridge, J. M. Econometric Analysis of Cross Section and Panel Data. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press (2002).
Wooldridge, J., “Introductory Econometrics: A modern Approach”, ed. South-Western, 2nd edition (2003).
World Development Indicators (2015). World Data Bank. < >.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186