International Journal of Science, Technology and Society
Volume 3, Issue 4, July 2015, Pages: 202-209
Received: Jun. 19, 2015;
Accepted: Jul. 2, 2015;
Published: Jul. 14, 2015
Views 4255 Downloads 97
Kutsanedzie F., Research and Innovation Department, Accra Polytechnic, Accra, Ghana
Ofori V., Agricultural Engineering Department, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
Diaba K. S., AgriculturalEngineering Department, Anglican University College of Technology, Sunyani, Ghana
Two composting systems: passive aerated system, horizontal-vertical system; active aerated system, turned windrow system was designed, constructed and studied for thirteen weeks to compare the maturity and safety of compost processed in them. Waste materials with the following percentage composition: river reed (75%), clay (10%), banana stalk / stem (5%), cow manure / dung (4%), rice chaff (4%), cocoa seed husk (1%), and poultry manure (1%) was processed in the two different systems. Compost materials were weekly sampled from top, bottom and mid portions of the compost masses in each of the systems and bulked to constitute a representative sample for the respective systems. From the weekly representative samples for the two systems, 5g subsamples were used for the determination of the germination index and microbial load for the compost masses. However temperature readings of the compost masses in both systems were recorded insitu daily at three different points using a long stem thermometer and the their respective averages used as the weekly readings for the systems. Temperature and the germination indices of composts processed in the two systems were used as parameters to assess the maturity; and the microbial load and its survival to assess the safety of the compost churned out. There were significant differences in the temperatures recorded in the two different systems during the composting period (p-value = 4.75 x 10-7, at α = 0.05). The total viable counts recorded in HV and TW ranged between 6.90 - 7.75logCFU/g of compost and 7.11–7.79logCFU/g of compost respectively which were significantly different (p-value = 0.027, at α = 0.05). The total fungi counts recorded in HV and T-W ranged between 1.11 – 2.32logCFU/g of compost and 1.68 - 2.40logCFU/g of compost respectively. Compost masses in all the systems had germination indices more than 150%.T-W had a higher rate of decomposition and maturity comparatively, hence a better composting system based on compost maturity. Penicillium spp. survived the process and it is known to produces mycotoxins which cause illnesses in humans. It is recommended that compost end-users, farmers, and producers use protectives and observe good hygiene in order to safeguard their health.
Diaba K. S.,
Maturity and Safety of Compost Processed in HV and TW Composting Systems, International Journal of Science, Technology and Society.
Vol. 3, No. 4,
2015, pp. 202-209.
Ben-Yephet, Y. & Nelson, E.B. Differential suppression of damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum, P. irreulare, and P. myriotylum in composts at different temperatures. Plant Diseases, 83:356-360, 1999.
Collins, C.H. & Lyne, P.M. Microbiological Methods. 5th ed. Butterworth and Co, London,1983, pp.5, 89.
Composting Council of Canada. A Summary of Compost Standards in Canada. Available at: www.compost.org/ standard.html, 2008. (accessed on 31 May 2015).
Compost Microbiology and the Soil Food Web 2008. Available at: http://w ww.ciwmb.ca.gov /publications/Organics/, 2008 (accessed on 5 January 2015).
Cunha Queda, A.C., Vallini, G., Agnolucci, M., Coelho, C.A., Campos, L. & de Sousa, R.B. Microbiological and chemical characterization of composts at different levels of maturity, with evaluation of phytotoxicity and enzymatic activities. In:Insam, H., Riddech, N., Krammer, S. (Eds.), Microbiology of Composting. Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, pp. 345–355, 2002.
Epstein, E. The Science of composting. Technomic Publishing Company, Inc., Lancaster, PA, 1996.
Garcia, C., Hernandez, T., Costa, F. & Ayuso, M. Evaluation of the maturity of municipal waste compost using simple chemical parameters. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal, 23:1501–1512, 1992.
Hao, X.Y., Chang, C., Larney, F.J. & Travis, G.R. Green gas emissions during cattle feedlot manure composting. J. Environ. Qual., 30:376-386, 2001.
Hoitink, H.A., Stone, A.G., and Han, D.Y. 1997,Suppression of plant diseases by compost HortScience, 32:184 -187, 1997.
Hue, N.V. & Liu, J. Predicting compost stability. Compost Science and Utilization, 3:8–15, 1995.
Ikeda, K., Koyama, F. Takamuku, K. & Fukuda, N. The Efficiency of Germination Index Method as a Maturity Parameter for Livestock Faeces Composts. Bulletin of the Fukuoka Agricultural Research Center, 25: 135-139, 2006.
Inbar, Y., Chen, Y., and Hoitink, H.A. 1993, Science and engineering of composting: design, environmental, microbiological and utilization aspects, H.A.J.Hoitink and H. M. Keener (Eds.), Renaissance Publications, Worthington, OH, 669, 1993.
Lopez-Real, J. & Baptista, M. A preliminary comparative study of three manure composting systems and their influence on process parameters and methane emissions. Compost Sci. Util., 4:71-82, 1996.
Sherman, R. Large-scale organic materials composting. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service. Available at: http://www.bae. ncsu.edu/bae/programs/extension/publicat/vermcompost/ag593 .pdf., 2005( accessed on 23 January 2015).
Strom, P.F. Effect of temperature on bacterial species diversity in thermophilic solid-waste composting. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 50(4): 899-905, 1985.
Sundberg, C. Improving Compost Process Efficiency by Controlling Aeration, Temperature and PH. Doctoral Thesis No.2005:103, Faculty of Natural Resources and Agriculture, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden, pp. 10,11,16-17, 2005
USDA. Composting. Part 637, National Engineering Handbook, NRCS, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C., 2002.
Zucconi, F., Forte, M., Monaco, A. & De Bertoldi, M. Biological evaluation of compost maturity. BioCycle, 22: 27-29, 1981.