An Evaluation of the Impact of Economic Sanctions on Science Teaching and Learning at Secondary Level in Zimbabwe’s Mbire District of Mashonaland Central
Volume 4, Issue 5, September 2015, Pages: 194-200
Accepted: Oct. 21, 2014;
Published: Aug. 12, 2015
Views 5231 Downloads 96
Monica Zembere, Institution-Bindura University of Science Education, Bindura Zimbabwe
This article takes stock of the effects of economic sanctions imposed on Zimbabwe in 2000 on science teaching and learning at secondary level. This study was conducted using a descriptive survey design. This method was chosen because it allows the use of a representative sample from a population and that it allows the researcher to handle a larger number of schools within a given period. The impact of sanctions is evaluated for the years between 2006 and 2010 in Mbire district of Mashonaland Central. Four indicators were specifically assessed; these are science teacher- pupil ratio, science laboratories and equipments, brain drain and finally pass rate against overall enrolment. In this article, subjects like integrated science, physical science and mathematics have been selected as subjects of focus for they are central to both economic and technological development. This research has been prompted by high failure rate in these subjects at ordinary level in Mbire which has resulted in high incidences of school dropouts. This could be attributed, probably to social, economic and political pressures mounting on students as a result of sanctions. The researcher feels this has something to do with the nature and quality of educational instruction those pupils in Mbire have been exposed to, resulting in the frustrated child without a full ordinary level certificate. For a period of four years, 2006-2010 Mbire districts in Mashonaland Central has been recording 0% pass rate in science subjects at ordinary level. Shortage of qualified science teachers has been used to explain these dismal results. The research gathered that between 2000 and 2010 about 80% of secondary schools in this district were manned by either untrained teachers or primary trained teachers
An Evaluation of the Impact of Economic Sanctions on Science Teaching and Learning at Secondary Level in Zimbabwe’s Mbire District of Mashonaland Central, Education Journal.
Vol. 4, No. 5,
2015, pp. 194-200.
Burton, J.B.(2002) “Economic Sanctions: The Institutional Factor”, Canadian Journal of Development Studies, 23(1): 27-46. (On Line) at: http://hetcorporation.ca/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/economic sanctions.pdf
Chetsanga, C. J. (2002). An analysis of the causes and effects of brain drain in Zimbabwe. Harare: Scientific and Industrial Development Centre.
Chigora,P.,and Dewa, D.(2009), “Surviving in a hostile Environment: An Analysis of Zimbabwe’s Foreign Relations in 21stCentury International Relations” African Journal of political science and International Relations, 3(3): 92-98
Chingono, H.(2010), “Zimbabwe Sanctions: An analysis of the ‘Lingo’guiding the perceptions of the sanctions and the sanctioneers”. African Journal of political sciences and International Relations, 4(2): 66-74 (On Line) at http://www.academicjournals.org/ajsiron23/07/10.
Chombo,I.(1998), ‘The human factor and education content in Zimbabwe’ in Vimbai Chivaura and Mararike C.C (eds).The Human Factor Approach to Development in Africa, Harare, Zimbabwe, University of Zimbabwe Publications.
Darling-Hammond,(1999) Teacher Quality and Student Achievement: A Review of State Policy Evidence, Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 1999, Internet: http://depts.washington.edu/ctpmail/PDFs
Finnegan, W. (2002), “ Economic Sanctions” The New Yorker. (April 18), pp43-53
Hondora,T.(2008). Economic Sanctions undermine Zimbabwe’s economy.Retrievedfrom http://www.newzimbabwe.com/pages/sanctions32.13170.html
Ingersoll (2000), Turnover Among Mathematics and Science Teachers in the U.S., National Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching for the 21st Century, Internet: http://www.ed.gov/inits/Math/glenn/Ingersollp.doc
Ingersoll (2001). Teacher Turnover, Teacher Shortages, and the Organization of Schools, Internet: http://depts.washington.edu/ctpmail/PDFs/Turnover-Ing-01-2001.pdf
Mushonga, M.(2005). Brain drain dilemma in Zimbabwe: factors, extent and alternatives in the new millennium”, paper presented at the SAARDHE Conference, Durban, 26–29 June.
Mutume, G. (2003).Reversing Africa’s brain drain: new initiatives tap skills of African experts”, Zambia Daily Mail, 25 July.
Odunsi, B.A.(1996). An analysis of brain drain and its impact on manpower development in Nigeria”, Journal of Third World Studies, 13(Spring): 193–214.
Torbat,A.E.(2005). “Impact of the US Trade and Financial Sanctions on Iran” The world economy journal.
H. Wenglinsky, How Teaching Matters: Bringing the Classroom Back into Discussions of Teacher Quality, Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ, 2000, Internet: http://www.ets.org/research/pic/teamat.pdf
Zvobgo, C. J (1999) Post-colonial state and educational Reform. (Zimbabwe, Zambia and Botswana), Harare: College Press.