Body Integrity Identity Disorder and Gender Dysphoria: A Pilot Study to Investigate Similarities and Differences
American Journal of Applied Psychology
Volume 3, Issue 6, November 2014, Pages: 138-143
Received: Oct. 23, 2014; Accepted: Oct. 31, 2014; Published: Nov. 17, 2014
Views 1719      Downloads 201
Authors
Antonia Ostgathe, MSH Medical School Hamburg, University of Applied Sciences and Medical University, Am Kaiserkai 1, D-20457 Hamburg, Germany
Thomas Schnell, MSH Medical School Hamburg, University of Applied Sciences and Medical University, Am Kaiserkai 1, D-20457 Hamburg, Germany
Erich Kasten, MSH Medical School Hamburg, University of Applied Sciences and Medical University, Am Kaiserkai 1, D-20457 Hamburg, Germany
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Objective: Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID) describes a phenomenon in which physically healthy people feel the constant desire for an impairment of their body. M. First [4] suggested to classify BIID as an identity disorder. The other main disorder in this respect is Gender Dysphoria. In this paper these phenomena are compared. Method: A questionnaire survey with transsexuals (number of subjects, N=19) and BIID sufferers (N=24) measuring similarities and differences. Age and educational level of the subjects are predominantly matched. Results: No differences were found between BIID and Gender Dysphoria with respect to body image and body perception (U-test: p-value=.757), age of onset (p=.841), the imitation of the desired identity (p=.699 and p=.938), the etiology (p=.299) and intensity of desire (p=.989 and p=.224) as well as in relation to a high level of suffering and impaired quality of life (p=.066). Conclusion: There are many similarities between BIID and Gender Dysphoria, but the sample was too small to make general statements. The results, however, indicate that BIID can actually be classified as an identity disorder.
Keywords
Body Integrity Identity Disorder, BIID, Xenomelia, Amputation, Gender Dysphoria, Transsexualism, Identity, Gender Identity Disorder, Identity Disorder
To cite this article
Antonia Ostgathe, Thomas Schnell, Erich Kasten, Body Integrity Identity Disorder and Gender Dysphoria: A Pilot Study to Investigate Similarities and Differences, American Journal of Applied Psychology. Vol. 3, No. 6, 2014, pp. 138-143. doi: 10.11648/j.ajap.20140306.14
References
[1]
Beier, K. M., Bosinski, H. & Loewit, K. (2005). Sexualmedizin (Vol. 2). München, Jena: Urban & Fischer Verlag, Elsevier GmbH.
[2]
Blanke, O., Morgenthaler, F. D., Brugger, P. & Overney, L. S. (2008). Preliminary evidence for a fronto-parietal dysfunction in able bodied participants with a desire for limb amputation. Journal of Neuropsychology, 124, 1-13.
[3]
Dua, A. (2010). Apotemnophilia: ethical considerations of amputating a healthy limb. J Med Ethics, 36, 75-78.
[4]
First, M. (2005). Desire for amputation of a limb: paraphilia, psychosis, or a new type of identity disorder. Psychological Medicine, 35, 919-928.
[5]
First, M. & Fisher, C. (2012). Body Integrity Identity Disorder: The Persistent Desire to Acquire a Physical Diability. Psychopathology, 45, 3-14.
[6]
Haupt, H.-J. (2012). "Sie sind ihr Gehirn – Transsexualität im Spannungsfeld von Neurowissenschaft und Transphobie"– Lecture presented on Trans*Identitäten, Wien. Access on 28.02.2014. Available in http://www.trans-evidence.com/Neuro_Transphobie.pdf
[7]
Hilti, L. M. & Brugger, P. (2010). Incarnation and animation: physical versus representational deficits of body integrity. Exp Brain Res, 204, 315-326.
[8]
Kasten, E. (2009). Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID): Befragung von Betroffenen und Erklärungsansätze. Fortschr Neurol Psychiat, 77, 16-24.
[9]
Kasten, E. (2012). Body Integrity Identity Disorder – Körperidentität durch erwünschte Behinderung. Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie up2date, 6 (3), 165-176.
[10]
Lawrence, A. A. (2006). Clinical and Theoretical Parallels between Desire for Limb Amputation and Gender Identity Disorder. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 35, No. 3, 263-278
[11]
Manok, A. (2012). Body Integrity Identity Disorder. Die Zulässigkeit von Amputationen gesunder Gliedmaßen aus rechtlicher Sicht (Vol. 1). Leipzig: Leipziger Universitätsverlag.
[12]
Möller, B., Schreier, H. & Romer, G. (2009). Geschlechts¬identitätsstörungen im Kindes- und Jugendalter. Z Sexualforsch, 22, 227-254.
[13]
Nieder, T. et al. (2011). Age of Onset and Sexual Orientation in Transsexual Males and Females. J Sex Med, 8, 783-791.
[14]
Nieder, T. O. & Richter-Appelt, H. (2009). Parallels and Differences between Gender Identity Disorders (GID) and Body Integrity identity Disorder (BIID) and Implications for Research and Treatment of BIID. In Stirn A., Thiel A. & Oddo S. (Ed.), Body Integrity Identity Disorder: Psychological, Neurobiological, Ethical and Legal Aspects (pp. 133-138). Lengerich: Pabst Science Publishers.
[15]
Stirn, A., Thiel, A. & Oddo, S. (2009). Body Integrity Identity Disorder: Psychological, Neurobiological, Ethical and Legal Aspects. Lengerich: Pabst Science Publishers.
[16]
Stirn A., Thiel A. & Oddo S. (2010). Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID). Störungsbild, Diagnostik, Therapieansätze (Vol. 1). Weinheim, Basel: Beltz Verlag.
[17]
Söder, M. (1998). Düsseldorfer Fragebogen zur Transidentität. In: Die Strukturen der Herkunftsfamilien weiblicher Transsexueller und deren Vergleich mit einer Stichprobe von Frauen kongruenter Geschlechtsidentität. Unpublished diploma thesis, Psychologisches Institut der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf
[18]
Thiel, A., Ehni, F. J. F., Oddo, S. & Stirn, A. (2011). Body Integrity Identity Disorder: Erste Erfolge in der Langzeitpsychotherapie. Psychiat Prax, 38, 256-258.
[19]
Vetter, B. (2007). Sexualität: Störungen, Abweichungen, Transsexualität (Vol. 1). Stuttgart, New York: Schattauer Verlag.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
548 FASHION AVENUE
NEW YORK, NY 10018
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-688-8931