Body Integrity Identity Disorder: Development and Evaluation of an Inventory for the Assessment of the Severity
American Journal of Applied Psychology
Volume 4, Issue 3, May 2015, Pages: 76-82
Received: Apr. 26, 2015;
Accepted: May 9, 2015;
Published: May 23, 2015
Views 2175 Downloads 76
Mona L. Fischer, Dept. of Neuropsychology, Medical School Hamburg, University of Applied Sciences, Am Kaiserkai 1, Hamburg, Germany
Thomas Schnell, Dept. of Clinical Psychology, Medical School Hamburg, University of Applied Sciences, Am Kaiserkai 1, Hamburg, Germany
Erich Kasten, Dept. of Neuropsychology, Medical School Hamburg, University of Applied Sciences, Am Kaiserkai 1, Hamburg, Germany
Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID), the wish of subjects for an amputation of otherwise healthy limbs, is a rare disturbance. Until now, BIID was seen as a symptom affecting a group of people suffering from an urging desire for amputation. But while some of the BIID-affected people only have a weak wish for an amputation others show severe symptoms. The aim of this work was the development of a psychological test to measure the severity of the wish for amputation or palsy in BIID afflicted subjects. Additionally, we analyzed correlation with demographic data. We developed a survey in English and German language from which three pairs of similar items were created for a test of reliability. 45 people affected by BIID answered this survey (38 men, 7 women, age 42.6 ±12.4). After controlling for robustness, a normal distribution of the "BIID-severity" could be detected and the subjects were divided into 5 groups (<2 SD: very low, -2 to -1 SD: light, -1 to +1 SD: moderate, +1 to +2 SD: heavy, > +2 SD: very heavy BIID). The severity of BIID sufferers was not more pronounced in older than in younger subjects, but BIID affects more men than women and the first manifestation of BIID occurs predominantly in childhood.
Mona L. Fischer,
Body Integrity Identity Disorder: Development and Evaluation of an Inventory for the Assessment of the Severity, American Journal of Applied Psychology.
Vol. 4, No. 3,
2015, pp. 76-82.
Ach, A. & Pollmann, A. (2006). No body is perfect – Baumaßnahmen am menschlichen Körper. Bioethische und ästhetische Aufrisse. Transcript Verlag. Bielefeld.
Bayne, T. & Levy, N. (2005). Amputees by choice: Body Integrity Identity Disorder and the ethics of amputation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 22, 75-86.
Blanke, O., Morgenthaler, F.D., Brugger, P. & Overney, L.S. (2009). Preliminary evidence for a fronto-parietal dysfunction in able-bodied particpants with a desire for limp amputation. Journal of Neuropsychology, 3, 181-200.
Braam, A.J., Visser, S., Cath, D.C. & Hoogendijk, W.J.G. (2006). Investigation of the syndrome of Apotemnophilia and course of a cognitive-behavioral therapy. Psychopathology, 39, 32-37.
Brang, D., McGeoch, P.D. & Ramachandran, V.S. (2008). Apotemnophilia: a neurological disorder. Neuroreport, 19, 1305-1306.
Brugger, P., Vitacco, D. & Hilti, L. (2009). A neurological account of Body Integrity Identity Disorder. In: Stirn, Thiel, Oddo (Eds.): Body Integrity Identity Disorder: Psychological, Neurobiological, Ethical and Legal Aspects: 201- 210. Lengerich: Pabst.
Dyer, C. (2000). Surgeon amputated healthy legs. British Medical Journal ,320, 332.
Elliot, C. (2000). A new way to be mad. Amputations sought by healthy people. The Atlantic Monthly, 2866, 73-84. (URL:http:// www.theatlantic.com/ doc/ 200012/ madness; from: 12.11.2012).
First, M.B. (2005). Desire for amputation of a limp: paraphilia, psychosis or a new type of identity disorder. Psychological Medicine,35, 919-928.
First, M.B., Spritzer, R., Gibbon, M. & Williams, J. (1999). Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-4 Axis 1 Disorders. Biometrics Research Department: New York.
Furth, G. & Smith, R. (2000). Apotemnophilia Information, questions, answers and recommendations about self-demand amputation. Bloomington: 1stBooks Publishers.
Horn, F. (2003). A life for a limb. Social Work Today, 3, 16-19.
Johnson, A.J., Liew, S.-L. & Aziz-Zadeh, L. (2011). Demographics, learning and limitation and body scheme in Body Integrity Identity Disorder. Indiana University Undergraduate Journal of Cognitive Science, 6, 8-15.
Kasten, E. & Stirn, A. (2009). Wechselnder rechts: links-Amputationswunsch bei Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID). Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychotherapie und Psychologie. 55-61.
Kasten, E. (2009). Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID): Interrogation of patients and theories for explanation. Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie, 77(1), 16-24.
Kasten, E. (2012). Body Integrity Identity Disorder – Körperidentität durch erwünschte Behinderung. Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie. up2date, 6, 165-174.
Kasten, E. & Spithaler F. (2009). Body Integrity Identity Disorder: Personality Profiles and Investigation of Motives. In: Stirn, Thiel, Oddo (Eds.). Body Integrity Identity Disorder. Papst Science Publishers. P.20-40.
McGeoch, P.D., Brang, D., Song, T., Lee, R.R., Huang, M. & Ramachandran, V.S. (2010). Xenomelia: a new right parietal lobe syndrome. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 82, 1314-1319.
Money, J, Jobaris, R. & Furth, G. (1977). Apotemnophilia: Two cases of self demand amputation as a paraphilia. Journal of Sex Research, 13, 115-124.
Neff, D. & Kasten, E. (2010). Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID): What do health care professionals know? European Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1(2), 16-31.
Noll, S. & Kasten, E. Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID): Body integrity identity disorder (BIID): How satisfied are successful wannabes? Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. 2014; 3(6): 222-232
Ryan, C.J. (2009). Out on Limp: The Ethical Management of Body Integrity Identity Disorder. Neuroethics, 2(1), 21-33.
Sorene, E.D, Heras-Palou, C. & Burke, F.D. (2006). Self-amputation of a healthy hand: a case of body integrity identity disorder. Journal of Hand Surgery 31, 593-595.
Stirn, A., Thiel, A. & Oddo, S. (2009). Body Integrity Identity Disorder: Psychological, Neurobiological, Ethical and Legal Aspects. Lengerich: Pabst Verlag.
Thiel, A., Oddo, S., Skoruppa, S., Thiel, J., Ehni, F., Bennett, D. & Stirn, A. (2009). Psychotherapy and Psychometric Research with BIID-Sufferers. In: Stirn, Thiel & Oddo (Eds.) (2009). Body Integrity Identity Disorder: Psychological, Neurobiological, Ethical and Legal Aspects. Lengerich: Pabst Verlag. P. 58-69.