Journal of Plant Sciences
Volume 3, Issue 6, December 2015, Pages: 320-328
Received: Sep. 10, 2015;
Accepted: Sep. 25, 2015;
Published: Dec. 5, 2015
Views 5081 Downloads 284
Alemayehu Tilahun Getie, Departement of Horticulture, College of Agriculture and Natural Resource, Dilla University, Dilla, Ethiopia
Nigussie Dechassa, Department of Plant Science, Collage of Agriculture and Environmental Science, Haramaya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia
Tamado Tana, Department of Plant Science, Collage of Agriculture and Environmental Science, Haramaya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia
To investigate the effect of nitrogen fertilizer and planting density on yield and yield components of potato crop (Bubu variety), a field experiment was carried out in Haramaya, Eastern Ethiopia during the rainy season of 2012. The experiment was a 4 x 5 factorial combination and a randomized complete block design with 3 replicates. Treatments included quantity of nitrogen fertilizer (0, 110, 165 and 220 kg N/ha) and planting density (4.17 plant m-2 (80 cm x 30 cm), 4.44 plant m-2 (75 cm x 30 cm), 5.56 plant m-2 (60 cm x 30 cm), 6.67 plant m-2 (60 cm x 25 cm) and 8 plant m-2 (50 cm x 25 cm)). Increasing nitrogen level up to110 kg N/ha lead to more tuber yield, highest stem number, plant height, total dry biomass, total tuber number, large-sized tuber yield (59.01%) and marketable tuber yield. The highest foliar N concentration was recorded at 165 kg N/ha. Increasing planting density resulted in higher tuber yield; total tuber number, total dry biomass yield (%), marketable tuber yield and small-sized tuber yield (16.92%). Highest foliar N concentration was found at the lower planting densities of 4.17 and 4.44 plant m-2. Yield of tuber per hectare was significantly and positively correlated with leaf area index, total tuber number, days to physiological maturity and total dry biomass yield. In conclusion, results of the experiment revealed that 110 kg N/ha and planting density of 6.67 plant m-2 resulted in optimum total (35.50 and 35.66 t/ha, respectively) and marketable tuber yields of the Bubu variety in Haramaya, Eastern Ethiopia during the rainy season.
Alemayehu Tilahun Getie,
Response of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield and Yield Components to Nitrogen Fertilizer and Planting Density at Haramaya, Eastern Ethiopia, Journal of Plant Sciences.
Vol. 3, No. 6,
2015, pp. 320-328.
Struik PC, Wiersema SG (1999). Seed potato technology. Wageningen Pers, Wageningen, the Netherlands, 383 P.
FAO (2010). World food and Agricultural Organization data of statistics. Rome, Italy. http://faostat.fao.org/site/567/. Accessed on June, 2012
Tekalign Tsegaw (2005). Response of potato to paclobutrazol and manipulation of reproductive growth under tropical conditions. PhD thesis. pp. 2-3.
Muriithi MM, Irungu JW (2004). Effect of integrated use of inorganic fertilizer and organic manures on Bacterial Wilt Incidence (BWI) and tuber yield in potato production system on hill slopes of central Kenya. J. Mountain Science. 1: 81-88.
Tekalign M, Teklu E, Balesh T (2001). Soil fertility and plant nutrition research on Teff in Ethiopia. Proceeding of the international workshop on Teff Genetics and Improvement, October 16-19, 2001, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, pp: 191-200.
Ministry of Agriculture (2004). Directory of Released Crop Varieties and Their Recommended Cultural Practices. Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Arsenault WJ, LeBlanc DA, Tai GCC, Boswall P (2001). Effects of nitrogen application and seed piece spacing on yield and tuber size distribution in eight potato cultivars. American J. Potato Research. 78: 301–309.
Sanderson JB, White RP (1987). Comparison of urea and Ammonium nitrate as nitrogen sources for potatoes. American Potato J. 64(4): 165-176.
Zabihi-e-Mahmoodabad R, Jamaati-e-Somarin S, Khayatnezhad M, Gholamin R (2011). Correlation of Tuber Yield Whit Yield Components of Potato Affected by Nitrogen Application Rate in Different Plant Density. Advances in Environmental Biology. 5(1): 131-135, Ardabil, Iran.
Jamaati-e-Somarin S, Zabihi-e-Mahmoodabad R, Yari A (2010). Yield and Yield Components of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) tuber as Affected by Nitrogen Fertilizer and Plant Density. Australian J. Basic and Applied Sciences. 4(8): 3128-3131.
Binalfew T (2012). Influence of plant spacing on seed tuber production of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars grown in eastern Ethiopia. Msc. Thesis submitted to School of Plant Sciences, Haramaya University, Ethiopia. pp73.
Endale G, Gebremedhin W (2001). Effect of spatial arrangement on tuber yield of some potato cultivars. African Crop Science J. 9 (1): 67-76.
Landon JR (1991). Booker Tropical Soil Manual (Ed.). A handbook for Soil Survey and Agricultural Land Evaluation in the Tropics and Sub-Tropics. Booker Agriculture International Limited, Bath. Pp. 112-141.
Firman DM, Allen EJ (1988). Field measurement of the photosynthetic rate of potatoes grown with different amounts of nitrogen fertilizer. J. agricultural Science. 111: 85-90.
Lung’aho C, Lemaga B, Nyongesa M, Gildermacher P, Kinyale P, Demo P, Kabira J (2007). Commercial seed potato production in eastern and central Africa. Kenya Agricultural Institute. Pp 140.
William MA, Woodbury GW (1968). Specific gravity dry matter relationship and reducing sugar changes affected by potato variety, production area and storage. American Potato J. 45(4): 119-131.
Jackson MC (1975). Soil chemical analysis. Prentice Hall, Inc. Englewood liffs N.J.
Millard P, Marshall B (1986). Growth, nitrogen uptake and portioning within the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) crop, in relation to nitrogen application. J. Agricultural Sciences. 107: 421-429.
Zelalem A, Tekalign T, Nigussie D (2009). Response of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to different rates of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on vertisols at Debre Berhan, in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Afr. J. Plant Sci. 3 (2): 016-024.
Israel Zewide, Ali Mohammed, Solomon Tulu (2012). Effect of different rate of nitrogen and phosphorus on yield and yield components of potato (solanum tuberosum L.) at Masha District, Southwestern Ethiopia. International J. Soil Science. 7(4): 146-156.
Alam MN, Jahan MS, Ali MK, Ashraf MA, Islam MK (2007). Effect of vermicompost and chemical fertilizers on growth, yield and yield Components of potato in barind soils of Bangladesh. J. Applied Sciences Research, 3(12): 1879-1888.
Ojala JC, Stark J, Kleinkopf GE (1990). Influence of irrigation and nitrogen management on potato yield and quality. American Potato J. 67:29-44.
Krishnippa KS (1989). Effect of fertilizer applications on dry matter and N, P, and K accumulation in the potato at different stages of growth. Mysore J. Agricultural. Science. 23:349-354.
Beukema HP, Van der Zaag DE (1990). Introduction to Potato Production. Pudoc Wageningen, Netherland.
Zamil MF, Raman MM, Rabbani MG, Khatun T (2010). combined effect of nitrogen and plant spacing on the growth and yield of potato with economic performance. Bangladesh Research J. 3 (3): 1062-1070.
Alvin JB, Mitchell PD, Copas ME, Drilias MJ (2007). Evaluation of the Effect of Density on Potato Yield and Tuber Size Distribution. Crop Science. 47: 2462-2472.
Kleinkopf GE, Westermann DT, Dwelle RB (1981). Dry matter production and nitrogen utilization by six potato cultivars. Agronomical J. 73: 799-802.
Marschner H (1995). Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. 2nd Ed. Academic Press, London. Pp889.
Amzallag GN, Herner HR, Poljakott-Mayber A (1992). Interaction between mineral nutrients, cytokinin and gibberellic acid during growth of sorghum at high NaCl salinity. J. Exp. Bot. 43: 81-87.
De la Morena, Guillen IA, Garcia del Morel LF (1994). Yield development in potatoes as influenced by cultivar and the timing and level of nitrogen fertilizer. American Potato J. 71: 165-173.
Jamaati-e-Somarin S, Tobeh A, Hassanzadeh M, Hokmalipour S, Zabihi-e Mahmoodabad R (2009). Effects of plant density and nitrogen fertilizer on nitrogen uptake from soil and nitrate pollution in potato tuber. Research J. Environmental Science. 3(1): 122-126.
Abdella G, Guinazu M, Tizio R, Pearce DW, Pharis RP (1995). Effect of chloroethyl trimethyl ammonium chlorides on tuberisation and endogenous GA3 in roots of potato cuttings. Plant Growth Regulators. 17: 95-100.
Vreugdenhil D, Sergeeva LI (1999). Gibberellins and tuberisation in potato. Potato. Res. 42: 471– 481.
Westermann DT, James DW, Tindall TA, Hurst RL (1994). Nitrogen and potassium fertilization of potatoes: sugar and starch. American Potato J. 71: 433-453.
Ifenkwe OP, Allen EJ, Wurr DCE (1974). Factors affecting the relationship between tuber size and dry matter content. American Potato J. 51: 233-241.
Gardner BR, Jones JP (1975). Petiole analysis and the nitrogen fertilization of Russet Burbank potatoes. American Potato J. 52: 195-200.
Wurr DCE (1974). Some effects of seed size and spacing on the yield and grading of two main crop potato varieties. I. final yield and its relationship to plant population. J. Agricultural Sciences. 82: 37-45
Rex BL, Russell WA, Wolfe (1987). The effect of spacing of seed species on yields quality and economic value for processing of Shepody potato in Manitoba. American Potato J. 64(4): 177-189.
Ulrich A, Hills FJ (1973). Plant analysis as an aid in fertilizing sugar crops. Part I. Sugarbeets. In:L.M. Walsh, J.D. Beaton, eds. Soil testing and Plant Analysis, 2nd ed. Madison, WI: SSSA. Pp. 271-278.
Joern BC, Vitosh ML (1995). Influence of applied nitrogen on potato. American Potato J. 72(1): 51-63.