Medicinally Potent and Highly Salt Tolerant Plant of Arid Zone - Salvadora persica L. (Meswak): A Review
The Genus Salvadora is an oil yielding and medicinally potent genus belongs to the family Salvadoraceae. This genus consists of number of evergreen trees which occur in saline and non-saline habitats. Salvadora persica and Salvadora oleoides are two important species which are identified in India. Salvadora persica L.is reported to have more phyto-constituents and possesses numerous biological activities as compared to the other species. It is facultative halophytes found in dry and arid regions of India (Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab, Maharashtra and Gujarat). Traditionally the wood sticks of S. persica have been used for cleaning the teeth and so named toothbrush tree which possess anti-bacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-fungal, anti-cancer, anti-ulcer, anti-plaque, anti-caries, anti-plasmodial activity. This review reveals the overall updates regarding its phytochemicals and pharmacognostical profile of this medicinally potent plant species.
Medicinally Potent and Highly Salt Tolerant Plant of Arid Zone - Salvadora persica L. (Meswak): A Review, Journal of Plant Sciences. Special Issue: Medicinal Plants.
Vol. 3, No. 1-1,
2015, pp. 45-49.
Jain S.K. Medicinal plants. National Book Trust, India, PP.3, 1996.
Tewari, M.N. The distribution of medicinal plants in arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan Thar desert. In: Goodin, J.R. and Northington, D.K. (eds.). Arid Land Plant Resources. Lubbock, Taxas, Texas Tech. University, pp. 186-194, 1979.
Bhansali, R.R. and Jindal, S.K. In vitro multiplication of Phytoplasma infected plants of arid zone; In: Management of arid ecorystem (eds). Paroda, A.S., Joshi, N.L. Katya S. and Amal K Scientific publishers, Jodhpur. PP 391-396, 1999.
Gill, AS., Bisaria, AK. andShukla, S.K. 1998. Potential of agroforestry as source of medicinal plants Glimpses in Plant Research. In: Govil, J.N. (Ed.) Current concept of multi discipline approach to the medicinal plants.Today and Tomorrow's Printers and Publishers, New Delhi, Vol XH.
Yadav, J.P. Saini, S. Kalia, A.N. Botanical, cytological, phytochemical and Pharmacognostical Studies on Salvadora species. Journal of medicinal and plant sciences , 28: 231-238,2005.
Saini, S. Yadav, J.P. Kalia, A.N. Hypoglyceamic activity of S.persica and S.oleoides in Diabetic Albino rats. , 28: 1-14,2006.
Iyengar, E.R.R., Patolia, J. S. and Chikara, J. 1992. A useful plant for coastal saline soil. Wasteland News. 50-51.
Anonymous. The wealth of India. Raw material publications and informations directorate council for scientific and industrial research New Delhi: India, Vol. 9, pp. 193-195,1972.
Ershad, D. New record of two Cercospora species from Iran. Iranian J. Plant Pathology. 26 (1-4) : 117- 118,1990.
Kumar, S. and Ahmed, S.I. Salvadora persica - new host record for Catopsilia crocale Cram. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Indian Forester 122 (I): 83-84,1996.
Peshwae, S.R. Studies on tissue cultures of Salvadora persica Linn. M.Sc. Thesis, Poona University, Pune, 1987.
Rao, G.G. and Babu, V.R. Leaf epicuticular wax of Salvadora persica growth on saline black soils. Ind. J. Plant Physiol. 2 (4): 290-292, 1997.
Maggio, A. Reddy, M.P. and Joly, R.J. Leaf gas exchange and solute accumulation in halophyte Salvadora persica grown at moderate salinity. Environ. Exp. Bot. 44(1): 31-38, 2000.
Jindal, S.K. Bhansali, R. R. and Satyavir . Salvadora tree -A potential source of non edible oil; in proc of All India seminar on rabi oil seed crop (Jodhpur,CAZRI),1996.
Dogan, A.U. Dogan, M. Chan, D.C.N. Wurster, D.E. Bassanite from Salvadora persica: A new evaporitic biomineral. Carbonates and evaporates, 20(1): 2-7,2005.
Khalil, A. Taha. Benzylamides from Salvadora persica, 29(11): 952-956,2006.
Kamil, M. Ahmed, F. Jayaraj, A.F. Guna-sekhar ,C. Thomas, S. Habibullah, M. Chan, K. Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical studies on S.persica L. , 42: 64-75,1999.
Darmani, H. Al-Hiyasat, A.S. El betieha, A.M. Alkofahi ,A. The effect of an extract of Salvadora persica on fertility of male and female mice. Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology ,0(1): 63-65,2003.
Malik, S. Ahmad, S.S., Haider, S.L. and Muzaffar, A. Salvadoricine- A new indole alkaloid from the leaves of Salvadora persica. Tetrahedron Lett. 28(2): 163-164,1987.
Ali, A.A. Assaf, M.H. Ei-Shanawany. Flavonoid glycosides from the leaves of Salvadora persica L. Bulletin of Pharmaceutical sciences , 20(2):181-186,1997.
Almas, K. Skaug ,N. Ahmad, I. In vitro antimicrobial comparison of miswak extract with commercially available non-alcohol mouthrinses. Int J Dent Hyg , 3: 18-24,2005.
Siddiqui, S. Khan, S.S. Ansari, A.H. Antimicrobial activity of Salvadora Persica. Journal of Ultra Chemistry, 2(2): 193-196,2006.
Ronse De Craene, L. And Wanntorp, L. Floral development and anatomy of Salvadoraceae. Ann Bot ,104: 913-23,2009.
Almas, K. The antimicrobial effects of seven different types of Asian chewing sticks. Indian journal of Dental journal , 12(3): 127-32,2001.
Almas ,Khalid. The effect of Salvadora persica extract and chlorhexidine gluconate on human dentin. The journal of contemporary dental practice , 3(3): 27-35,2002.
Al-Otaibi ,M. Al-Harthy, M. Gustafsson, A. Angmar, B. Comparative effect of chewing sticks and tooth brushing on plaque removal and gingival health. Oral Health Prev Dent, 1: 301-307, 2003.
Alali ,F. Hudaib, M. Aburjaj, T. Khairallah, K. Al-Hadidi, N.GC-MS analysis and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from the stem of the Jordanian toothbrush tree Salvadora persica., 42(8): 577-58,2004.
Arora ,S. Kaushik, D. Anti-inflammatory activity of Salvadora persica L. Journal of Science &Pharmacy , 7(3): 89-93,2006.
Arora ,S., Kaushik, D. Free radial scavenging activity of Salvadora persica L., Asian journal of chemistry,19(6): 4638-4644,2007.
Sofrata, A.H. Claesson, R.L. Lingstram, P.K. Gustafsson, A.K. Strong antibacterial effect of miswak against oral microorganisms associated with periodontitis and caries. J Periodontol, 79: 1474-1479,2008.
Bhatia, B. and Sharma, H.L. 2000. Fuel wood production and wasteland reclamation. The Botanica 50 : 84-93,2000.
Zodape, S.T. Indusekhar, V.K. Salvadora persica: A Boon to wasteland development Scient. Indust. Res., Scient. Indust. Res., 1997.
Murphy, D. J. 1995. New oil for old chemistry in Britain. 31(4): 300-302,1995.