A Study of Biological Markers in HIV Disease Progression and Management in yhe Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) Era
A Study of Biological Markers in HIV Disease Progression and Management in yhe Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) Era, American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering.
Vol. 1, No. 2,
2013, pp. 24-37.
Andrea Sebben Kramer, Alexandre Ramos Lazzarotto, Edu-arado Sprinz, Waldomiro Carlos Manfroi. Metabolic abnor-malities, Antiretroviral therapy and cardiovascular disease in elderly patients with HIV. Arq Bras Cardiol 2009; 93(5): 519-526.
A.C., Ene, T.O. Harry, A.A. Gadzama, B.B. Ajayi, B.M. Bintube and D.N. Bukbuk. Biochemical abnormalities asso-ciated with HIV-1 infection as observed in Maiduguri, North-eastern Nigeria. Research Journal of Medicine and Medical sciences, 2006; 1(2): 82-84.
Alan J. Cohen and Roy T. Steigbigel. Eosinophilia in Patients Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus. JID 1996; 174: 615-8
Azzoni L, Foulkes AS, Liu Y, Li X, Johnson M, et al. Priori-tizing CD4 Count Monitoring in Response to ART in Re-source-Constrained Settings: A Retrospective Application of Prediction-Based Classification. PLoS Med 2012; 9(4): e1001207. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001207
Barbaro G. Visceral fat as target of highly active antiretroviral therapy-associated metabolic syndrome . Curr. Pharm. Des 2007; 13: 2208-2213.
Boulware DR, Meya DB, Bergemann TL, Wiesner DL, Rhein J, et al. Clinical Features and Serum Biomarkers in HIV Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome after Cryptococcal Meningitis: A Prospective Cohort Study. PLoS Med 2010; 7(12): e1000384. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000384
Baveewo S, Ssali F, Karamagi C, Kalyango JN, Hahn JA, et al. Validation of World Health Organisation HIV/AIDS Clinical Staging in Predicting Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy and Clinical Predictors of Low CD4 Cell Count in Uganda. PLoS ONE 2011; 6(5): e19089. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019089
Bernard Rosner (2000), Fundamentals of Biostatistics, 5th Edition, Duxbury, page 80-240
Berhane, K., R. Karim, M.H. Cohen, L. Masri-Lavine and M. Young et al.,. Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on anemia and relationship between anemia and survival in a large cohort of HIV-infected women: Women’s interagency HIV study J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr., 2004; 37: 1245-1252.
Carr, A., K. Samaras, S. Burton, M. Law and J. Freund et al.,. A syndrome of peripheral lipodystrophy, hyperlipidaemia and insulin resistance in patients receiving HIV protease inhibitors. AIDS, 1998; 12: F51-F58.
Chaudhary, M., B. Kashyap, H. Gautam, S. Saini and P. Bhalla,. Use of surrogate markers to predict the HIV disease stage and time to initiate antiretroviral therapy in developing countries. J. Int. Assoc, Phys. AIDS Care, 2008; 7: 259-264. DOI: 10.1177/1545109708322302
Clamy A, Gayet-Ageron A, Montecucco F, Nguyen A, Mach F, et al. HIV increases markers of cardiovascular risk, results from a randomized treatment interruption trial. AIDS2009; 23: 929-939
Cooper CL. HIV antiretroviral medications and hepatotox-icity. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2007 ; 2: 466-473.
Choi S, Lagakos SW, Schooley RT, Vollberding PA CD4+ lymphocytes are an incomplete surrogate marker for clinical progression in persons with asymptomatic HIV infection taking Zidovudine. Ann Intern Med 118: 674-680
Christine N. Dao, Philip J. Peters, James N. Kiarie, Isaac Zulu, Peter Muiruri, John Ong’ech, Winfred Mutsotso, Dara Potter, Lungowe Njobvu, Jeffrey S.A. Stringer, Craig B. Borkowf. Omotayo Bolu, and Paul J. Weidle. Hyponatremia, Hypochloremia, and Hypoalbuminemia Predict an Increased Risk of Mortality During the First Year of Antiretroviral Therapy Among HIV-Infected Zambian and Kenyan Women. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2011; 27(14). DOI: 10.1089/aid.2010.0345
David M LOWE. The ESR in HIV: A Neglected Parameter? AIDS. 2010; 24(18): 2773–2775. doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e32833ef5d7.
Friis-Moller N, Reiss P, Sabin CA, Weber R, Monforte AA, El-Sadr W, et al. Class of antiretroviral drugs and the risk of myocardial infarction. N Engl Med. 2007; 356:1723-35.
Guaraldi G, Squillace N, Stentarelli C, Orlando G, D’Amico R Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in HIV infected-patients referred to a metabolic clinic: prevalence, characteristics, and predictors. Clin Infect Dis 2008; 47: 250-257.
G. Miiro, S. Nakubulwa, C. Watera, P. Munderi, S. Floyd, H. Grosskurth. Evaluation of affordable screening markers to detect CD4+ T-cell counts below 200 cells/μl among HIV-1-infected Ugandan adults. Tropical Medicine & International Health 2010; 15(4):396-404. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2010.02471.x
HO Olawumi and PO Olatunji. The value of Serum Albumin in pretreatment assessment and monitoring of therapy in HIV/AIDS patients. HIV Medicine 2006; 7: 351-355.
Helena P. W. Oudenhoven, Hinta Meijerink, Rudi Wisaksana, Suryani Oetojo, Agnes Indrati, Andre J. A. M. van der Ven, Henri A. G. H. van Asten, Bachti Alisjahbana, Reinout van Crevel. Total lymphocyte count is a good marker for HIV-related mortality and can be used as a tool for starting HIV treatment in a resource-limited setting. Tropical Medicine & International Health 2011; 16(11):1372-79 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2011.02870.x
Jeffrey J. Sevigny, Steven M. Albert, Michael P. McDermott, Giovanni Schifitto, Justin C. McArthur, Ned Sacktor, Kathe-rine Conant, Ola A. Selnes, Yaakov Stern, Daniel R. McClernon, Donna Palumbo, Karl Kieburtz, Garrett Riggs, Bruce Cohen, Karen Marder, and Leon G. Epstein.An Eval-uation of Neurocognitive Status and Markers of Immune Activation as Predictors of Time to Death in Advanced HIV Infection Arch Neurol, 2007; 64: 97 - 102.
Jain MK. Mortality in Patients Coinfected with Hepatitis B Virus and HIV: Could Antiretroviral Therapy Make a Dif-ference? Clin Infect Dis 2009; 48: 1772-1774
Jafari S, Rasoolinejad M, Emadi Kouchak H Mokarami F. The relationship between total lymphocyte count and CD4 count in patients infected with HIV. Tehran Medical Journal 2009; 67(7): 477-482
Khedmat H, Fallahian F, Abolghasemi H, Hajibeigi B, At-tarchi Z. Serum gamma- glutamyltransferase, alanine ami-notransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase activity in Ira-nian healthy blood donor men. World J Gastroenterol 2007; 13: 889-894.
Kamat, A., V. Ravi, A. Derai, P. Satish Chandra, K.S. Satish and M. Kumar,. Estimation of virological and immunological parameters in subjects from south India infected with human immunodefeciency virus type-1 clade C and correlation of findings with occurrence of neurological disease. J. Neurovirol., 2008; 15: 25-35.
Kannangai, R., A.J. Kandathil, D.L. Ebenzer, E. Mathai and A.J. Prakash et al.,. Usefulness of Alternate prognostic serum and plasma markers for antiretroviral therapy for Human immunodefeciency virus type-1 infection. Clin. Vaccine Immunol., 2008; 15: 154-158.
Kramer AS, Lazzarotto AR, Sprinz E, Manfroi WC. Meta-bolic abnormalities, Antiretroviral therapy and cardiovascular disease in elderly patients with HIV. Arq Bras Cardiol 2009; 93: 561-568.
Kalafateli M, Triantos C, Tsamandas A, Kounadis G, La-bropoulou-Karatza C . Abnormal liver function tests in a pa-tient with myotonic dystrophy type 1 Annals of Hepatology 2012; 11: 130-133
Leghmari K, Bennasser Y, Tkaczuk J, Bahraoui E . HIV-1 Tat protein induces IL-10 production by an alternate TNF-alpha-independent pathway in monocytes; role of PKC-delta and p38 MAP kinase. Cell immunol 2008; 253: 45-53
Lehmann MH, Walter S, Ylisastigui L, Striebel F, Ovod V, et al. Extracellular HIV-1 Nef increases migration of monocytes. Exp Cell res 2006; 132:3659-3668.
Langford, S.E., J. Anaaworanich and D.A. Cooper. Predic-tors of disease progression in HIV infection: A review. AIDS Res. Ther., 2007; 4: 11.
Lee DH, Ha MH, Kim JH, Christiani DC, Gross MD, et al. Gamma-glutamyltransferase and diabetes--a 4 year fol-low-up study. Diabetologia 2003; 46: 359-364.
Miedema, F.,. T-cell dynamics and protective immunity in HIV infection: A brief history of disease. Curr. Opin. HIV AIDS, 2006; 1: 1-2.
MMWR Recommendations and Reports, 1992. Guidelines for performance of CD4+T-cell determinations in persons with Human Immunodeficiency virus infection. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00019952.htm
Mata-Marín et al.: Risk factors and correlates for anemia in HIV treatment-naïve infected patients: a cross-sectional ana-lytical study. BMC Research Notes 2010; 3:230.
Marrigje A. de Jong, Rudi Wisaksana, Hinta Meijerink, Agnes Indrati, Andre J. A. M. van de Ven, Bachti Alisjahbana, Reinout van Crevel. Total lymphocyte count is a reliable surrogate marker for CD4 cell counts after the first year of antiretroviral therapy: data from an Indonesian cohort study. Tropical Medicine & International Health 2012; 17(5):581-583 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2012.02961.x
Morpeth SC, Crump JA, Shao HJ, Ramadhani HO, Kisenge PR, Moylan CA, et al. Predicting CD4 lymphocyte count <200 cells/mm(3) in an HIV type 1-infected African popula-tion. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2007; 23(10):1230–6. [PubMed: 17961109]
Martyn A H French. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome: immune restoration disease 20 years on. MJA 2012; 196:318–321 doi: 10.5694/mja12.10089
Moses R. Kamya, Fred C. Semitala, Thomas C Quinn, Allan Ronald, Denise Njama-Meya, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza1, Elly T. Katabira and Lisa A. Spacek. Total lymphocyte count of 1200 is not a sensitive predictor of CD4 lymphocyte count among patients with HIV disease in Kampala, Uganda. African Health Sciences 2004; 4(2): 94-101
National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO) (2008). UN-GASS country progress report 2008: India. New Delhi, Mi-nistryof Health and Family Welfare.
National AIDS Control Organization (NACO), 2006. HIV/AIDS Epidemiological surveillance and estimation re-port for the year 2005. National AIDS Control Organization, New Delhi. http://www.aidsportal.org/repos/Fnlapil06rpt.pdf
Ndakotsu MA, Salawu L, Durosinmi MA. Relation between erythrocyte sedimentation rate, clinical and immune status in HIV-infected patients. Niger J Med 2009; 18(2):208–10. [PubMed: 19630332]
O.A. Ajose, S.O. Banjoko, O.A. Olasode, V.A. Oyegunle and J.B. Fakunle. Plasma biochemical parameters as prog-nostic markers in HIV-1 infected patients. Research Jopurnal of Medical Sciences, 2008; 2(4): 163-165.
Owiredu WKBA, Quaye L, Amidu N, Addai-Mensah O. Prevalence of anaemia and immunological markers among Ghanaian HAART-naïve HIV-patients and those on HAART. African Health Sciences 2011; 11(1): 2 – 15
Pere Domingo, Ignacio Suarez-Lozano, Ramon Teira, Fer-nando Lozano, Alberto Torron, Pompeyo Viciana, Juan Gonzalez, M Jose Galindo, Paloma Geijo, Antonio Vergara, Jamie Cosin, Esteban Ribera, Bernardino Roca, M Lucia Gracia-Alcalde, Trinitaro Sanchez, Ferran Torres, Juan Ra-mon Lacalle and Myriam Garrido. Dyslipidemia and cardi-ovascular disease risk factor management in HIV-1 infected subjects treated with HAART in Spanish VACH cohort. The Open AIDS Journal, 2008; 2:26-38.
Paula E. Brentlinger, Jose´ Vallejo Torres, Pilar Mart´ınez Mart´ınez, Annette Ghee, Johnny Lujan, Rui Bastos, Rolanda Manuel, Florindo M. Mudender, and Ame´rico Assan. Clinical Staging of HIV-Related Illness in Mozambique: Performance of Non physician Clinicians Based on Direct Observation of Clinical Care and Implications for Health Worker Training. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2010; 55:351–355
Peters PJ, Zulu I, Kancheya NG, Lakhi S, Chomba E, Vwa-lika C, et al. Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group. Modified Kigali combined staging predicts risk of mortality in HIV-infected adults in Lusaka, Zambia. AIDS Res Hum Re-troviruses 2008; 24(7):919–24. [PubMed: 18593343]
Papadopulos-Eleopulos E . Reppraisal of AIDs Is the oxida-tion induced by risk factors the primary cause? Med Hypo-theses 1988; 25: 151-162
Pachamuthu Balakrishnan, Suniti Solomon, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy & Kenneth H. Mayer. Low-cost monitoring of HIV infected individuals on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in developing countries. Indian J Med Res, April 2005; 121: 345-355
Praful B Godkar, Darshan P Godkar. Textbook of Medical Laboratory Technology. 2nd edition. Bhalani Publishing House, 2006 - 1094 p ISBN8185578583, 9788185578583
Ramana, K.V. and S.K. Mohanty,. Opportunistic intestinal parasites and TCD4+cell counts In Human immunodeficiency virus seropositive patients. J. Med. Microbiol., 2009; 58: 1664-1666.
Rasheed S, Yan JS, Lau A, Chan AS. HIV replication en-hances production of free fatty acids, low density lipoproteins and many key proteins involved lipid metabolism: Apro-teomics study. PLoS ONE 2008; 3(8):e303.doi:10.13/1/journal.pone.0003003.
Robert H Riffenburg. Statistics in Medicine, second edition, Academic press. 2005, 85-125.
Ray, K., S.M. Gupta, M. Bala, S. Muralidhar and J. Kumar,. CD4/CD8 lymphocyte counts in healthy, HIV positive indi-viduals and AIDS patients. Indian J. Med. Res., 2006; 124: 319-330. PMID: 17085836
Sevigny, J.J., S.M. Albert, M.P. McDermott, G. Schifitto and J.C. McArthur et al.,. An evaluation of neurocognitive status and markers of immune activation as predictors of time to death in advanced HIV infection. Arch. Neurol., 2007; 64: 97-102. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17210815
Sunder Rao P S S, Richard J : An Introduction to Biostatis-tics, A manual for students in health sciences , New Delhi: Prentice hall of India. 86-160
S. H. Kapiga, D. Mwakagile, D. Spiegelman, G. I. Msa-manga, D. Hunter and W. W. Fawzi. Predictors of CD4+ Lymphocyte count among HIV-Seropositive and HIVSero-negative pregnant women in Dares Salaam, Tanzania. East African Medical Journal 2000; 77 (4)
Spacek, L.A., M. Jriswold, T.C. Quinn and R.D. Moore,. Total lymphocyte count and hemoglobin combined in an al-gorithm to initiate the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy in resourcelimited settings. AIDS, 2003; 17: 1311-1317.
Sehgal, S., V. Datta, S. Mujtaba, A. Sood and V.K. Vinayaka,. Cellular and serological markers of disease activity in Indian patients with HIV/AIDS. Methods Cell. Sci., 2002; 24: 107-114.
Sourav Sen., Akshat Vyas, Sunil Sanghi, K Shanmuganan-dan, RM Gupta, Ketoki Kapila, AK Praharaf, Satish Kumar, RB Batra. Correlation of CD4+ T cell Count with Total Lymphocyte Count, Haemoglobin and Erythrocyte Sedi-mentation Rate Levels in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-l Disease. MJAFI 2011; 67: 15-20
Suresh Venkata Satya Attili, V. P. Singh, Madhukar Rai, Datla Vivekananda Varma, K. Gulati, Shyam Sundar. Hema-tological profile of HIV patients in relation to immune status – a hospital-based cohort from Varanasi, North India. Turk J Hematol 2008; 25:13-19
S Shah, CJ Smith, F Lampe, M Youle, MA Johnson, AN Phillips and CA Sabin. Haemoglobin and albumin as markers of HIV disease progression in the highly active antiretrovial therapy era: relationships with gender. HIV Medicine 2007; 8, 38–45
Tietz Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry, 6th edition. Carl A. Burtis, Edward R. Ashwood, and David E. Bruns, editors. St Louis, MO: Saunders/Elsevier, 2008, 976 pp, ISBN 978-0-7216-3865-2.
WHO: Scaling up antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings: treatment guidelines for a public health approach - 2003 revision (Monograph online). Switzerland: WHO press; 2004. . Available from: http://www.who.inU hiv/pub/prev 3areieniarvrevision2003en.pdf.
Wisaksana et al.: Anemia and iron homeostasis in a cohort of HIV-infected patients in Indonesia. BMC Infectious Diseases 2011; 11:213.
UNAIDS., 2006. AIDS epidemic update. Joint United Na-tions Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), Geneva. http://2006_Epiupdate_en.pdf
Walker, A.S., V. Mulenga, F. Sinyinza, K. Lishimpi and A. Nunn et al.,. Determinants of survival without antiretroviral therapy after infancy in HIV- 1-infected Zambian children in the CHAP trial. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr., 2006; 42: 637-645. PMID: 16868501
Wyles DL, Gerber JG Antiretroviral drug pharmacokinetics in hepatitis with hepatic dysfunction. Clin Infect dis 2005; 40: 174-181
World Health Organization, United Nations Children’s Fund, UNAIDS (2009). Towards universal access: scaling up-priority HIV/AIDS interventions in the health sector. Progress report 2009. Geneva, World Health Organization.