Detection of Fungal Metabolites from Bakanae Diseased Plants and Their Relationship with Bakanae Disease Symptoms Expression
American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Volume 4, Issue 6, December 2016, Pages: 77-89
Received: Nov. 28, 2016; Accepted: Dec. 23, 2016; Published: Jan. 17, 2017
Views 3208      Downloads 108
S. A. J. Quazi, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute and Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
M. Sariah, Department of Plant Protection, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
Zainal Abidin B. M. Ahmad, Department of Plant Protection, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
J. Hawa, Department of Crop Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
Article Tools
Follow on us
Amount of fungal metabolites present in diseased plants and their consequences in bakanae disease development were determined. Metabolites fusaric acid (FA), fumonisin (FB1), moniliformin (MON) and beauvericin (BEA) were isolated and quantified using HPLC analysis from rice plants infected with Fusarium proliferatum. Higher amount of moniliformin was detected from stem part (550 ng/g fresh wt.) as well as from whole plants (112.8 ng/g fresh wt.) in susceptible of MR 211 at disease score level 5. But moniliformin was not detected in inoculated resistant variety BR3. The level of FA was progressed from disease score 1 to disease score 5 that made plants to stunting/ceased growth. Among the four fungal metabolites, MON and FA had found positive relationship with bakanae disease symptoms development. This paper will be helpful for understanding the relationship between fungal metabolites in bakanae disease development in susceptible rice plants. Theknowledge of this research will be also implied on other fungal diseases for which fungi are capable to produce metabolites in infected plants.
Fusarium Proliferatum, Bakanae, Fungal Metabolites, Symptoms Expression, Susceptible Rice Plants
To cite this article
S. A. J. Quazi, M. Sariah, Zainal Abidin B. M. Ahmad, J. Hawa, Detection of Fungal Metabolites from Bakanae Diseased Plants and Their Relationship with Bakanae Disease Symptoms Expression, American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. Vol. 4, No. 6, 2016, pp. 77-89. doi: 10.11648/
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Quazi, S. A. J., Meon, S., Jaafar, H., Ahmad, Z. A. B. M. (2013) Characterization of Fusarium proliferatum through species specific primers and its virulence on rice seeds. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 15: 649-56.
Quazi, S. A. J., Meon, S., Jaafar, H. & Ahmad Z. A. B. M. (2015) The role of phytohormones in relation to bakanae disease development and symptoms expression. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 90: 27-38.
Leslie, J. F., Anderson, L. L., Bowden, R. L. and Lee, Y.-W. (2007) Inter-and intra-specific genetic variation in Fusarium. International Journal of Food and Microbiology, 119: 25-32.
Syahputra, B. S. A., Sinniah, U. R., Rastan, S. O. S., and Ismail, M. R. (2013) Changes in gibberellic acid (GA3) content in Oryza sativa due to paclobutrazol treatment. Journal of Food and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1: 14-17.
Proctor, R. H., Desjardins, A. E., and Moretti, A. (2010) Biological and chemical complexity of Fusarium proliferatum. In Strange, R. N. and Gullino. M. L. Ed.,The Role of Plant Pathology in Food Safety and Food Security, Plant Pathology in the 21stCentury(volume 3). Netherlands: Springer, 97-111
Cruz, A., Marin, P., González-Jaén, M. T., Aguilar, K. G. and Cumagun, C. J. R. (2013) Phylogenetic analysis, fumonisin production and pathogenicity of Fusarium fujikuroi strains isolated from rice in the Philippines. Journal of Science Food andAgriculture 93: 3032-3039.
Amatulli, M. T., Spadaro, D., Gullino, M. L., Garibaldi, A. (2010) Molecular identification of Fusarium spp. associated with bakanae disease of rice in Italy and assessment of their pathogenicity. Plant Pathology 59: 839-844.
Li, C., Wu, Y-L., Yang, T. and Huang-Fu, W-G. (2012) Rapid determination of fumonisins B1 and B2 in corn by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry with ultrasonic extraction. Journal of Chromatographic Science, 50: 57–63.
Parmar, P., Oza, V. P. and Subramanian, R. B. (2010) Optimization of fusaric acid production by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici using response surface methodology. Indian Journal of Science and Technology,3(4): 411-416.
Šrobárová, A., Eged, S., Da Silv, a J. T., Ritieni, A. and Santini, A. (2009) The use of Bacillus subtilis for screening fusaric acid production by Fusarium spp., Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 27 (3): 203–209.
Liu, F-M., Chen, P-C., Fu, Y-M. and Shih, D. Y-C. (2005) Determination of fumonisin B1and B2 in corn products. Journal of Food and DrugAnalysis, 13(3): 273-278.
Desjardins, A. E. and Hohn, T. M. (1997) Mycotoxins in plant pathogenesis MolePlant-Microbe Interaction, 10(2): 147-152.
Desjardins, A. E., Manandhar, H. K., Plattner, R. D., Anandhar, G. G., Poling, S. M. and Maragos, C. M. (2000) Fusarium species from Nepalese rice and production of mycotoxins and gibberellic acid by selected species. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 66(3): 1020–1025.
Kovačić, S., Pepeljnjak, S., Petrinec, Z. and Mklarić, M. S. (2009) Fumonisin B1 Neurotoxicity. In Young carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.). Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicol, 60:419-426.
Munimbazi, C. and Bullerman, L. B. (2001) Chromatographic method for the determination of the mycotoxin moniliformin in corn. In Trucksess, M. W. and Pohland, A. E. Ed., Methods in Molecular Biology. Mycotox Protoc 157 Totowa, Newzealand: Humana Press. 131-145.
Kostecki, M., Wisniewska, H., Perrone, G., Ritieni, A., Jerzy, P. G., Chelkowski, J. and Logrieco, A. (1999) The effects of cereal substrate and temperature on production of beauvericin, moniliformin and fusaproliferin by Fusarium subglutinans ITEM-1434. Food Additives and Contaminants: Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & amp; Risk Assessment,16(9): 361-365 (available online on:
Eged, S. (2005) Thin-layer appropriate method for fusaric acid estimation. BiologiaBratislava, 60(1): 104.
Issac., S. (1998) Some fungi produce toxins that affect the physiological functioning of higher plants: what is the role of these compounds in the development of plant disease? Mycologist, 12(3): 124-125.
Waśkiewicz A, Irzykowska L, Bocianowski J, Karolewski Z, Kostecki1 M, Weber Z, and Goliński1 P (2010) Occurrence of Fusarium Fungi and Mycotoxins in Marketable Asparagus Spears. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 19(1): 219-225.
Wu, H-S., Bao, W., Liu, D-Y., Ling, N., Ying, R-R., Raza, W. and Shen, Q-R. (2008). Effect of fusaric acid on biomass and photosynthesis of water¬melon seedlings leaves. Caryologia. 61(3): 258-268.
Lee, Y. H. and Crill, J. P. (1989) Role of gibberellic acid and fusaric acid in rice plant inoculated with Gibberella fujikuroi (Swada) ito and kimura. Korean Journal of Plant Pathology, 5(2): 126-130.
Bacon, C. W., Porter, J. K., Norred, W. P., and Leslie, J. F. (1996). Production of fusaric acid by Fusarium species. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 62(11): 4039–4043.
Feng, J., Hwang, R., Chang, K. F., Hwang, S. F., Strelkov, S. E., Gossen, B. D., Conner, R. L. and Turnbull, G. D. (2010) Genetic variation in Fusariumavenaceum causing root rot on field pea. Plant Pathology, 59: 845–852.
Marasas, W. F. 0., Thiel, P. G., Rabie, C. J., Nelson, P. E., and Toussoun, T. A. (1986) Moniliformin production in Fusarium section Liseola. Mycologia, 78: 242-247.
Igarashi, D., Bethke, G., Xu, Y., Tsuda, K., Glazebrook, J., and Katagiri, F. (2013) Pattern-Triggered Immunity Suppresses Programmed Cell Death Triggered by Fumonisin B1. PLoS ONE 8(4): e60769. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060769.
Stone J. M., Heard, J. E., Asai, T., Ausubel F. M. (2000) Simulation of fungal-mediated cell death by fumonisin B1 and selection of fumonisin B1-resistant (fbr) Arabidopsis mutants. Plant Cell, 12: 1811-1822.
Abbas, H. K., Boyette, C. D., Hoagland, R. E., and Vesonder, R. E. (1991) BioherbicidalpotentialofFusarium moniliforme and its phytotoxin, fumonisin B1. Weed Science, 139, 673–677.
Desjardins, A. E., Plattner, R. D., Nelsen, T. C., and Leslie, J. F. (1995) Genetic analysis of fumonisin production and virulence of Gibberella fujikuroi mating population A (Fusarium mOllilifomle) on maize (Zea mays) seedlings. Applied Environmental and Microbiology, 61: 79-86.
Pavlovkin, J., Mistríková, I., Luxová, M. and Mistrík, I. (2006) Effects of beauvericin on root cell transmembrane electric potential, electrolyte leakage and respiration of maize roots with different susceptibility to Fusarium. Plant, Soil and Environment 52(11): 492–498.
Wakulinski, W. (1989). Phytotoxicity of the secondary metabolites of fungi causing wheat head fusariosis (head blight). Acta Physiologia Plantarum,11: 301–306.
Paciolla, C., Dipierro, N., Mule, G., Logrieco, A. and Dipierro, S. (2004) The mycotoxins beauvericin and T-2 induce cell death and alteration to the ascorbate metabolism in tomato protoplasts. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 65: 49–56.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186