Establishment of Africa Red Mahogany (Khaya anthoteca) Pre-Inoculated with Arbuscular Mycorrhizae Fungi (AMF) and Compost Application on an Ex-Coal Mined Site
American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry
Volume 3, Issue 2, March 2015, Pages: 38-46
Received: Feb. 24, 2015;
Accepted: Mar. 11, 2015;
Published: Mar. 15, 2015
Views 3000 Downloads 184
Philip Worlanyo Dugbley, Department of Silviculture, Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor-Indonesia
Irdika Mansur, Department of Silviculture, Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor-Indonesia; SEAMEO Biotrop, Jalan Raya Tajur 6K, Bogor, Indonesia
Basuki Wasis, Department of Silviculture, Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor-Indonesia
Coal mining provides a means for creating wealth and significantly contributes to export earnings, economic activity and employment whilst supporting regional development. However, coal mining is one of the most severe disturbances in terrestrial ecosystems. Thus, the removal of the natural vegetation and upper soil horizons for mining exploration hinders the establishment and survival of plant and soil microbial communities. Revegetation of ex-coal mined lands is therefore required to enable the recover, as close as possible, to its previous integrity. The establishment of tree species capable of protecting the underlying soil and its micro-fauna and flora is one way of achieving this aim. This study therefore aims to investigate the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi (AMF) pre-inoculation and compost application on the growth performance of the Africa red mahogany, Khaya anthoteca on an ex-coal mined site. The field design for this study was the completely randomized design (CRD) in factorial experiment. Four (4) levels of each factor namely compost and AMF were used with sixteen treatment combinations and each treatment replicated four times giving sixty four (64) experimental units. The results indicated that compost has significant effect (P<0.001) on height, diameter and leaf increment with steady increment during this study. There was no significant effect of mycorrhizae treatment as well as interaction between both factors (AMF and compost) on the growth of K. anthoteca. However, compost composition from a mixture of Salvinia natans and that prepared from the paddy husk (C3) recorded the highest increment in height of 9.31 cm while compost from S. natans only (C1), rice hull compost; herein known as paddy husk compost (C2) and control (C0) recorded increments of 9.00 cm, 5.78 cm and 4.47 cm respectively. The arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi played a role in the survival of the species on the field. There was percentage difference of between 18.5-37.5% over the control treatment. AMF from Glomus manihotis had the highest percentage survival of 81.25% whiles the control treatment of mycorrhizae had the lowest percentage of 43.75%. Plants are also able to withstand harsh environmental conditions through fungi-plant symbiosis enhancing the chances of survival on the field and thus, aiding the plant establishment. The study concludes that AMF and compost applications are feasible and sound technologies for the establishment of K. anthoteca on ex-coal mined sites.
Philip Worlanyo Dugbley,
Establishment of Africa Red Mahogany (Khaya anthoteca) Pre-Inoculated with Arbuscular Mycorrhizae Fungi (AMF) and Compost Application on an Ex-Coal Mined Site, American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry.
Vol. 3, No. 2,
2015, pp. 38-46.
Al-Karaki GN. 2006. Nursery inoculation of tomato with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and subsequent performance under irrigation with saline water. Scientia Horticulture 17:109
Augé RM. 2001. Water relations, drought and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Mycorrhiza 11:3–42. doi:10.1007/s005720100097
Brady NC, Weil RR. 2008. The Nature and Properties of Soils. 14th Ed. Prentice Hall. NJ Pp 462.
Brundrett M, Bougher N, Dell B, Grove T. and Malajczuk N. 1996. Working with Mycorrhizae in Forestry and Agriculture. AClAR Monograph. Pirie Printers, Canberra, Australia Pp 179-185
Brundrett MC. 1991. Mycorrhizae in natural ecosystems. In: Macfayden A, Begon M, Fitter AH (ed.), Advances in Ecological Research. Vol. 21 Academic Press, Londen, 171-313.
Caravaca F, Herna´ndez T, Garcı´a C, Rolda´n A. 2002. Improvement of rhizosphere aggregate stability of afforested semiarid plant species subjected to mycorrhizal inoculation and compost addition. Geoderma (Elsevier) 108 133– 144
Cunha LO, Fontes MAL, Oliveira AD, Oliveira-Filho AT. 2003. Análise multivariada da vegetac¸ ão como ferramenta para avaliar a reabilitac¸ ão de dunas litorâneas mineradas em Mataraca, Paraíba, Brasil. Revista Árvore 27, 503–515.
Douds DD, Millner PD. 1999. Biodiversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in agroecosystems. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 74, 77–93
Duan XG, Neuman DS, Reiber JM et al,. 1996. Mycorrhizal influence on hydraulic and hormonal factors implicated in the control of stomatal conductance during drought. Journal of Experimental Botany 47:1541–1550. doi:10.1093/jxb/47.10.1541
European Commission. 2001. Applying Compost; benefits and needs. Seminar proceedings Brussels, 22-23 November 2001. Brussels, Belgium. P 128.
Gianinazzi-Pearson V, Gianinazzi S. 1983. The physiology of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal roots. Plant and Soil, Springer 71: 1-3, Pp 197-209
Giri B, Kapoor R, Agarwal L, Mukerji KG. 2004. Preinoculation with Arbuscular Mycorrhizae Helps Acacia auriculiformis Grow in Degraded Indian Wasteland Soil. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis. Marcel Dekker, Inc. 35:1, 2 Pp. 193–204
Hawthorne, W. 1998. Khaya anthotheca. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. www.iucnredlist.org.Downloaded on 24 January 2015.
Jakobsen I, Smith SE, Smith FA. 2002. Function and diversityof arbuscular mycorrhizae in carbon and mineral nutrition. In: van der Heijden MGA, Sanders IR (eds) Mycorrhizal ecology. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 75–92.
Johnson NC, Graham JH, Smith FA. 1997. Functioning of mycorrhizal associations along the mutualism-parasitism continuum. New Phytologist. 135:575–586. doi:10.1046/j.1469- 8137.1997.00729.x
Martin F, Perotto S, Bonfante P. 2007, Mycorrhizal fungi: A fungal community at the interface between soil and roots, pp. 201–236. In R. Pinton, Z. Varanini, and P. Nannipieri (Eds.), The rhizosphere: Biochemistry and organic substances at the soil-plant interface. Marcel Dekker, New York.
Mohr H. and Schopfer P. 1995. Plant physiology, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, Hong Kong. Pp 294.
Muchovej RM. 2004. Importance of mycorrhizae for agricultural crops. SS-AGR-170, Agronomy Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Nagase A, Dunnett N. 2011. The relationship between percentage of organic matter in substrate and plant growth in extensive green roofs. Landsc. Urban Plan. 103, 230–236.
Nwoboshie LC. 1982. Tropical silviculture: principles and techniques. Ibadan University Press. 333pp.
Ortas I. 2006. Mycorrhizae inoculated seedling production systems inorganic farming under greenhouse and field conditions. 5th International Conference on Mycorrhizae ICOM5 Mycorrhiza for Science and Society, 23-27 July, Granada, Spain.
Ouédraogo EA. Mando, Zombré NP. 2001. Use of compost to improve soil properties and crop productivity under low input agricultural system in West Africa. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment (Elsevier) 84 259–266.
Pamerindo Indonesia. 2015. A Pamerindo Indonesia Trade Event. The 17th International Mining and Minerals Recovery Exhibition and Conference, Jakarta International Expo, Kemayoran Jakarta-Indonesia. 9-12 September, 2015.
Paszkowski U. 2006. A journey through signaling in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses. New Phytol. 172, 35–46.
Russell EW 1998. Soil condition and plant growth. 11th edition, Longman Publication, UK. Pp 34.
Selvaraj T, Chelleppan P. 2006. Arbuscular mycorrhizae: a diverse personality, Central Eur. J. Agr. 7, 349–358.
Singh V, Singh TN. 2004. Environmental impact due to surface mining in India. Minetech, 25, 3-7
Smith FA, Grace EJ, Smith SE. 2009. More than a carbon economy: nutrient trade and ecological sustainability in facultative arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses. New Phytol.doi:10.1111/j.1469 8137.2008.02753.x
Smith SE, Read DJ. 2008. Mycorrhizal Symbiosis, 3rd ed. Elsevier and Academic, New York, London, Burlington, San Diego.
The United States Composting Council. 2008. USCC Factsheet: Compost and Its Benefits. Ronkonkoma, NY. Pp 1-2
Turk MA, Assaf TA, Hammed KM, Al-Tawaha AM. 2008. Significance of mycorrhizae, World J. Agric. Sci. 2, 16–20.