Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Coping Strategies at Malindza, a Rural Semi-Arid Area in Swaziland
American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry
Volume 3, Issue 3, May 2015, Pages: 86-92
Received: Mar. 20, 2015;
Accepted: Apr. 1, 2015;
Published: May 7, 2015
Views 6829 Downloads 310
Siboniso M. Mavuso, University of Swaziland, Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Manzini, Swaziland
Absalom M. Manyatsi, University of Swaziland, Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Manzini, Swaziland
Bruce R. T. Vilane, University of Swaziland, Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Manzini, Swaziland
The objective of the study was to assess the impacts of climate change faced by rural households in the lowveld of Swaziland, using Malindza as a case study area, and further identify adaptation and coping strategies employed by households. A questionnaire was developed and used to conduct interviews from 160 households randomly selected in four rural communities of the study area. Data were analysed with SPSS software, and reported in forms of tables and figures. More or less all the respondents (99%) were aware of climate change and climate change variability, Sources of information included radios (92.5%), television (5.6%) and agricultural extension officers (2%). The information was however considered inadequate and of short term remedy as it was in the form of daily weather forecast. The perceived effects of climate change included crop failure (99%), loss of livestock (99%) and drying of surface water (99%). Only 9% of the households harvested enough maize to last for a year, and the rest (91%) had to rely on buying maize, exchanging it for labour or receiving food aid. The climate change adaptation strategies practiced included contour ploughing (49%), use of organic fertilisers (29%) and crop rotation (20%). Thirty two percent of the households planted hybrid maize seeds and 15% planted open pollinated maize seeds. Another 26% planted both hybrid maize and open pollinated maize seeds. On the other hand, coping strategies practiced included selling or consuming small livestock and chicken (97%), consuming maize left for seeds (93%) and reducing food intake (23%). It was clear that the effects of climate change in rural areas were severe and needed to be addressed before critical damages like loss of human life manifest. The government should ensure that farmer’s knowledge on climate change and variability is increased through education to improve their adaptive capacity.
Siboniso M. Mavuso,
Absalom M. Manyatsi,
Bruce R. T. Vilane,
Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Coping Strategies at Malindza, a Rural Semi-Arid Area in Swaziland, American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry.
Vol. 3, No. 3,
2015, pp. 86-92.
Chambwera, M. and Stage, J. (2010). Climate change adaptation in developing countries: issues and perspectives for economic analysis.
Creative Research Systems, (2014). Sample size calculator. http:// www.surveysystem.com/sscalc.htm. 12/01/2014
Deressa, T.T, Hassan, R.M., Ringler, C., Alemu, T., and Yesuf, M. (2011). Perception of and Adaptation to Climate Change by Farmers in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia. The Journal of Agricultural Science, Vol. 149, pp. 23-31
FAO. (2007). Climate Change and Food Security: A Framework for Action. Report by an Interdepartmental Working Group on Climate Change. FAO, Rome, Italy.
FANRPAN (2013). Assessemnt of Climate Change Impact and Adaptation. Questionnaire. Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources Policy Analysis Network. Pretoria, South Africa.
Government of Swaziland (2007a). Swaziland Population and Housing Census. Swaziland Central Statistical office. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/sources/census/2010_PHC/Swaziland/Swaziland_more.htm . 07/04/2014.
Government of Swaziland, (2007b). Progress report on the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. Ministry of Economic Planning and Development, Mbabane, Swaziland.
Government of Swaziland (2010). Swaziland’s second national communication to the United Nations framework convention on climate change. Ministry of Tourism and Environmental Affairs. Mbabane, Swaziland.
Government of Swaziland (2011). HASSP community training workshop report for Swaziland. Seed quality control services. Ministry of Agriculture, Malkerns.
Government of Swaziland (2013). Report on baseline study of the Swaziland seed sector. Ministry of Agriculture, Mbabane, Swaziland.
Government of Swaziland (2014). Rainfall and Temperature data. Swaziland Meteorology Department. Mbabane, Swaziland.
IPCC (2007). Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. IPCC WGII Fourth Assessment Report.
Kandji, S.T., Verchot, L., and Mackensen, J. (2006). Climate Change and Variability in the Southern Africa: Impacts and Adaptation Strategies in the Agricultural Sector. United Nation Environmental Programme, Nairobi, Kenya.
Manyatsi, A.M., Thomas, T.S., Masarirambi, M.T., Hachigonta, S., and Sibanda L.M. (2013). Swaziland.pp 213-253. In: Southern African Agriculture and Climate Change. Hachigota, S., Nelson, G.C., Thomas, T.S., and Sibanda, L.M. (Eds). International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, USA.
Manyatsi, A.M. (1998). Soil Erosion and Control Training Manual. Soil Conservation, Watershed and Dam Management Training Manual. Environmental Consulting Services, Mbabane, Swaziland.
Manyatsi A.M. and Mhazo, N. (2014). Comprehensive Scoping Study of Climate Smart Agriculture Policies in Swaziland. Draft report submitted to Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources Policy Network (FANRPAN). Pretoria, South Africa.
Manyatsi A.M., Mhazo N, and Masarirambi M.T. (2010). Climate variability and changes as perceived by rural communities in Swaziland. Res. J. Environ. Earth Sic., Vol 2: (3), 165-170.
Mudzonga, E. (2011). Farmers’ Adaptation to Climate Change in Chivi District of Zimbabwe.Trade and development studies centre. 3 Downie Avenue Belgravia, Harare, Zimbabwe.
Ngigi, S.N. (2009). Water Resources Management Options for Smallholder Farming Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. The MDG Centre for East and Southern Africa of the Earth Institute at Columbia University, New York, USA.
Shongwe P., Masuku M.B. & Manyatsi A.M. (2013). Cost Benefit Analysis of Climate Change Adaptation Strategies on Crop Production System: A case of Mpolonjeni Area Development Programme (ADP) in Swaziland. Sustainable Agriculture Research: 3:1, 37-49.
SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciencies), (2008). SPSS for Windows. Release 17.00.SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA.
UNAIDS (2002). The Status of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Sub-Saharan Africa. Report on the Global AIDS Pandemic.
UNFCCC (2007). Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerabilities and Adaptation in Developing Countries. http://nufccc.in/resources/docs/publications, 12/11/2014
Vilane B.R.T., Manyatsi A.M. and Shabangu K. (2015). Drought coping strategies at Lunhlupheko community, a semi-arid rural area in Swaziland. African Journal of Agricultural Research. Vol 10 (8), 783-788
WFP, (2005). World Food Programme Annual Report 2005. www.wfp.org/../wfp-annual-report-2005. 7/10/2014
World Bank, (2003). Climate change and agriculture. A review of impacts and adaptations. Agriculture and rural development department.
Young, M. H. (2008). Global Climate Change: What Does it Mean for the World’s Women? Population Action International (PAI) blog. www.populationaction.org/./global-climate-change-what-doe.html, 7/11/2014.