Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Biofield Treated 3-Nitroacetophenone
Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry
Volume 3, Issue 6, November 2015, Pages: 71-79
Received: Sep. 19, 2015;
Accepted: Sep. 30, 2015;
Published: Oct. 16, 2015
Views 5375 Downloads 135
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, USA
Rama Mohan Tallapragada, Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, USA
Alice Branton, Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, USA
Dahryn Trivedi, Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, USA
Gopal Nayak, Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, USA
Rakesh Kumar Mishra, Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Hall-A, Chinar Mega Mall, Chinar Fortune City, Hoshangabad Rd., Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
Snehasis Jana, Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Hall-A, Chinar Mega Mall, Chinar Fortune City, Hoshangabad Rd., Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
3-Nitroacetophenone (3-NAP) is an organic compound used as an intermediate for the synthesis of pharmaceutical agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal and spectral properties of 3-NAP. The study was performed in two groups i.e. control and treated. The control group remained as untreated, and the treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The control and treated 3-NAP samples were further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), laser particle size analyzer, surface area analyzer, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and ultra violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) analysis. The XRD analysis showed decrease in crystallite size of treated 3-NAP by 20.27% as compared to the control sample. However, the XRD peaks of treated sample showed an increase in intensity as compared to the control. The DSC result showed a slight increase in melting temperature of treated 3-NAP (80.75ºC) with respect to the control (79.39ºC). The latent heat of fusion of treated 3-NAP was changed by 16.28% as compared to the control sample. The TGA analysis showed an increase in onset temperature of treated sample (192ºC) as compared to the control sample (182ºC). Further, the maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of treated 3-NAP was increased as compared to the control. This showed the increase in thermal stability of treated 3-NAP with respect to control. The treated 3-NAP showed an increase in average particle size (d50) by 27.6% along with an increase in size exhibited by 99% of particles (d99) by 4.9% as compared to the control. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis showed a substantial decrease in surface area by 24.6% with respect to the control. The FT-IR analysis showed an emergence of peak at 1558 cm-1 in treated 3-NAP sample as compared to the control. Nevertheless, the UV spectral analysis of treated 3-NAP showed no alterations in absorption peaks as compared to the control. Altogether, the result showed that biofield energy treatment has altered the physical, thermal and spectral properties of treated 3-NAP as compared to the control.
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi,
Rama Mohan Tallapragada,
Rakesh Kumar Mishra,
Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Biofield Treated 3-Nitroacetophenone, Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry.
Vol. 3, No. 6,
2015, pp. 71-79.
Ju KS, Parales RE (2010) Nitroaromatic compounds, from synthesis to biodegradation. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 74: 250-272.
Dalpozzo R, Bartoli G (2005) Bartoli indole synthesis. Curr Org Chem 9: 163-178.
Perez-Rebolledo A, Teixeira LR, Batista AA, Mangrich AS, Aguirre G, et al. (2008) 4- Nitroacetophenone-derived thiosemicarbazones and their copper(II) complexes with significant in vitro anti-trypanosomal activity. Eur J Med Chem 43: 939-948.
Vardanyan R, Hruby V (2006) Synthesis of essential drugs. (1stedn), Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Britain HG (2012) Profiles of drug substances, excipients and related methodology. Academic Press.
Iradyan MA, Aroyan RA, Stepanya GM, Arsenya FG, Garibdzhanyan BT (2008) Imidazole derivatives. XXX. Synthesis and antitumor activity of 4-amyloxy-3 nitroacetophenone 2-imidazolinyl-2-hydrazone and related compounds. Pharm chem J 42: 384-386.
Gomez-Rivera A, Aguilar-Mariscal H, Romero-Ceronio N, Roa-de la Fuente LF, Lobato-Garcia CE (2013) Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of three nitro chalcones. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 23: 5519-5522.
Peng F, Wang G, Li X, Cao D, Yang Z, et al. (2012) Rational design, synthesis, and pharmacological properties of pyranochalcone derivatives as potent anti-inflammatory agents. Eur J Med Chem 54: 272-280.
Shibuya A, Onda K, Kawahara H, Uchiyama Y, Nakayama H, et al. (2010) Sofalcone, a gastric mucosa protective agent, increases vascular endothelial growth factor via the Nrf2-heme-oxygenase-1 dependent pathway in gastric epithelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 398: 581-584.
Konduru NK, Dey S, Sajid M, Owais M, Ahmed N (2013) Synthesis and antibacterial and antifungal evaluation of some chalcone based sulfones and bisulfones. Eur J Med Chem 59: 23-30.
Liu YT, Sun XM, Yin DW, Yuan F (2013) Syntheses and biological activity of chalcones-imidazole derivatives. Res Chem Intermed 39: 1037-1048.
Yadav N, Dixit SK, Bhattacharya A, Mishra LC, Sharma M, et al. (2012) Antimalarial activity of newly synthesized chalcone derivatives In vitro. Chem Biol Drug Des 80: 340-347.
Du B, Daniels VR, Vaksman Z, Boyd JL Crady C, et al. (2011) Evaluation of physical and chemical changes in pharmaceuticals flown on space missions. AAPS J, 13: 299-308.
Blessy M, Patel RD, Prajapati PN, Agrawal YK (2014) Development of forced degradation and stability indicating studies of drugs- A review. J Pharm Anal 4: 159-165.
Trivedi MK, Patil S, Tallapragada RM (2013) Effect of biofield treatment on the physical and thermal characteristics of silicon, tin and lead powders. J Material Sci Eng 2: 125.
Trivedi MK, Patil S, Tallapragada RMR (2015) Effect of biofield treatment on the physical and thermal characteristics of aluminium powders. Ind Eng Manag 4: 151.
Trivedi MK, Patil S, Tallapragada RM (2013) Effect of biofield treatment on the physical and thermal characteristics of vanadium pentoxide powder. J Material Sci Eng S11: 001.
Trivedi MK, Nayak G, Patil S, Tallapragada RM, Jana S, et al. (2015) Bio-field treatment: An effective strategy to improve the quality of beef extract and meat infusion powder. J Nutr Food Sci 5: 389.
Trivedi MK, Patil S, Shettigar H, Bairwa K, Jana S (2015) Effect of biofield treatment on spectral properties of paracetamol and piroxicam. Chem Sci J 6: 98.
Barnes PM, Powell-Griner E, McFann K, Nahin RL (2004) Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults: United States, 2002. Adv Data 343: 1-19.
Uchida S, Iha T, Yamaoka K, Nitta K, Sugano H (2012) Effect of biofield therapy in the human brain. J Altern and Complement Med 18: 875-879.
Wilson CA (2011) Healing power beyond medicine. John Hunt Publishing Ltd., UK.
Warber SL, Cornelio D, Straughn J, Kile G (2004) Biofield energy healing from the inside. J Altern Complement Med 10: 1107-1113.
Prakash S, Chowdhury AR, Gupta A (2015) Monitoring the human health by measuring the biofield "aura": An overview. IJAER 10: 27637-27641.
Trivedi MK, Patil S, Shettigar H, Bairwa K, Jana S (2015) Phenotypic and biotypic characterization of Klebsiella oxytoca: An impact of biofield treatment. J Microb Biochem Technol 7: 203-206.
Trivedi MK, Patil S, Shettigar H, Gangwar M, Jana S (2015) An effect of biofield treatment on multidrug-resistant Burkholderia cepacia: A multihost pathogen. J Trop Dis 3: 167.
Patil SA, Nayak GB, Barve SS, Tembe RP, Khan RR (2012) Impact of biofield treatment on growth and anatomical characteristics of Pogostemon cablin (Benth.). Biotechnology 11: 154-162.
Nayak G, Altekar N (2015) Effect of biofield treatment on plant growth and adaptation. J Environ Health Sci 1: 1-9.
Pavia DL, Lampman GM, Kriz GS (2001) Introduction to spectroscopy. (3rdedn), Thomson Learning, Singapore.
Inoue M, Hirasawa I (2013) The relationship between crystal morphology and XRD peak intensity on CaSO4.2H2O. J Cryst Growth 380: 169-175.
Zhang K, Alexandrov IV, Kilmametov AR, Valiev RZ, Lu K (1997) The crystallite-size dependence of structural parameters in pure ultrafine-grained copper. J Phys D Appl Phys 30: 3008-3015.
Hellstern E, Fecht HJ, Fu Z, Johnson WL (1989) Stability of CsCl-type intermetallic compounds under ball milling. J Mater Res 4: 1292-1295.
Fecht HJ, Hellstern E, Fu Z, Johnson WL (1990) Nanocrystalline metals prepared by high energy ball milling. Metall Trans A 21: 2333-2337.
Eckert J, Holzer JC, Krill III CE, Johnson WL (1992) Structural and thermodynamic properties of nanocrystalline fcc metals prepared by mechanical attrition. Journal Mater Res 7: 1751-1761.
Oleszak D, Shingu PH (1996) Nanocrystalline metals prepared by low energy ball milling. J Appl Phys 79: 2975.
Dittrich M, Schumacher G (2014) Evolution of crystallite size, lattice parameter and internal strain in Al precipitates during high-energy ball milling of partly amorphous Al87Ni8La5 alloy. Mat Sci Eng A-Struct 604: 27-33.
Vinila VS, Jacob R, Mony A, Nair HG, Issac S, et al. (2014) XRD studies on nano crystalline ceramic superconductor PbSrCaCuO at different treating temperatures. Cryst Struct Theory Appl 3: 1-9.
Iqbal MZ, Ali S, Mirza MA (2008) Effect of particle size on the structural and transport properties of La0.67 Ca0.33 MNO3 nanoparticles. JNSMAC 48: 51-63.