In the last three decades attention has been paid on environmental management caused by toxic materials such as heavy metals whose levels have risen due to increased anthropogenic activities. Conventional methods for waste treatment are numerous, some of which are expensive and sometimes inefficient. A search for cheaper and environmentally friendly method of treatment using natural products has taken a central stage in the recent past. Moringa oleifera seed powder was investigated with a view of using it as a low cost biosorbent for the removal of toxic heavy metals from wastewater. Fourier transform Infrared (FT-IR) analysis was done for characterization of Moringa oleifera seeds powder. Batch biosorption experiments of Pb2+ and Cr2+ with respect to contact time, pH, particle size, adsorbent dosage, effect of pretreatment and adsorption isotherms were studied. FT-IR showed the presence of –NH, -OH, -COOH functional groups in the biomass. The maximum biosorption capacity was observed at pH 5 for both metals, with the particle size of adsorbent of 0.250 mm and high adsorbent dosage of 0.6 g. The order of modification for Pb2+ was CaCl2 > NaOH > KMnO4 > HCl, while that of Cr2+ was KMnO4 > CaCl2 > HCl > NaOH. Although the data fitted into both the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms high correlation coefficients of about 1.00, the Langmuir gave better results than the Freundlich. The results suggest that Moringa oleifera seeds have potential application in Pb2+ and Cr2+ decontamination from aqueous effluents and that pretreatment further enhances biosorption.
Ongulu Roselyn Adhiambo,
Kituyi John Lusweti,
Getenga Zachary Morang’a,
Biosorption of Pb2+ and Cr2+ Using Moringa Oleifera and Their Adsorption Isotherms, Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry.
Vol. 3, No. 6,
2015, pp. 100-108.
Abu Al-Rub, F. A., El-Naas, M. H., Ashour, I., and Al-Marzouqi, M. (2006). Biosorption of Cu(II) from Aqueous Solutions by Pre-treated Biomass of Marine Algae Padina sp. Biochem. 41: 457–464.
Adelaja, O. A., Amoo, I. A., Aderibigbe, A. D. (2011). Biosorption of Lead (II) ions from aqueous solution using Moringa oleifera pod. Scholar’s research library Archives of Applied Science Research 3(6): 50-60.
Affonso, C. G. J., Ana, P. M., Fernanda, R., Leonardo, S., Douglas, C. D. and Gustavo, C. F. (2012). Applicability of Moringa oleifera Lam. pie as an adsorbent for removal of heavy metals from waters. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental 17(1): 94–99 UAEA/UFCG – http://www.agriambi.com.br.
Aksu, Z., and Tezer, S. (2005). Biosorption of Cadmium (II) from Aqueous Solutions by Pre treated Biomass of Marine Algae Durvillaea potarotum. Process Biochem 40: 1347–1361.
Alves, V. N., Mosquetta, R., Coelho, N. M. M., Bianchin, J. N., Roux, K. C. P., Martendal, E., and Carasek, E. (2010). Determination of cadmium in alcohol fuel using Moringa oleifera seeds as a biosorbent in an on-line system coupled to FAAS. Talanta 80(3): 1133-38.
Anwar, F., and Rashid, U. (2007). Physico-chemical characteristics of Moringa oleifera seeds and seeds oil from a wild provenance of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 39(5): 1443-53.
Anwar, H. (2013). Development of novel biosorbents in removing heavy metals from aqueous solution. D.Phil thesis in environmental engineering. University of technology, Sydney 4: 17-24.
Bhatti, H. N., Mumtaz, B., Hanif, M. A., and Nadeem, R. (2007). Removal of Zn (II) ions fro aqueous solution using Moringa oleifera Lam. (Horseradish tree) biomass,” Process Biochem. 42: 547-553.
Bhatti, H. N., Khalid, R., and Hanif, M. A. (2008). Dynamic biosorption of Zn(II), Cu(II) using pretreated Rosa grass an teplitz (red rose) distillation sludge. Chem. Eng. J. 148: 434– 443.
Chang, J., Law, R., and Chang, C. (1997). Biosorption of Lead, Copper and Cadmium by Biomass of Pseudomonas acruginosa, Water Research 31(7): 1651-1658. doi: 10.1016/S0043-1354(97)00008-0.
Cleide, S. T., Araújo, D. C., Carvalho, H. C., Rezende, I. L. S., Almeida, S., Luciana, M., Coelho, N. M. M., Coelho, T. L., and Vanessa, N. A. (2013). Bioremediation of Waters Contaminated with Heavy Metals Using Moringa oleifera Seeds as Biosorbent. http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/56157.
Congeevaram, S., Dhanarani, J., Park, M., Dexilin, K., Thamaraiselvi, B. (2007). Biosorpion of Cr and Ni by heavy metal resistant fungal and bacterial isotopes, J. Hazard. Master 146: 270-277.
Davis, T. A., Volesky, B., and Mucci, A. (2003). A review of the biochemistry of heavy metal biosorption by brown algae. Wat. Res. 37(18): 4311-4330.
Ekmekyapar, F., Aslan, A., Kemal, B. Y., and Cakici, A. (2006). Biosorption of copper(II) by non-living lichen biomass of Cladonia rangiformis hoffm. Journal of Hazardous Materials 137: 293-298.
Eman, N., Ali, S. R., Alfarra, M. M. Y., and Lutfor, R. M. (2015). Environmentally friendly biosorbent from Moringa oleifera leaves for water treatment. International Jounal of Environmental Science and dev. 6: 3.
Fourest, E., and Roux, J. C. (1992). Heavy metal biosorption by fungal mycelial by-product; mechanisms and influence of pH. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 37(3): 399-403.
Gunawardana, C., Goonetilleke, A., Egodawatta, P., Dawes, L., and Kokot, S. (2012). Role of solids in heavy metal pollution of receiving waters. Journal of Environmental Engineering 138(4): 490-498.
Hanif, M.A., Nadeem, R., Bhatti, H. N., Ahmed, N. R., Ansari, T. M. (2007). “Ni(II) biosorption by Cassia fistula (Golden Shower) biomass,” J. Hazard. Mater 139: 345-355.
Horsefall, M. J., and Spiff, I. F. (2005). Effect of Metal ion concentration on Biosorption of Pb2+ and Cd2+ by Caladium Bicolor (Wild Cocoyam)., African J. Biotechnol. 4: 191-196.
Hossein, F., Tahari, E., Afshin, E., Ali. F., Marzieh, V. D and Bina, B. (2013). Effectiveness of Moringa oleifera powder in removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin. 22: 5a.
Jeon, C. J. Y., Park, Y. J., and Yoo, S. (2002). Characteristics of metal removal using carboxylated alginic acid, Water Res. 36, 1814-1824.
Kapoor, A., and Viraraghavan, T. (1997). Heavy metal biosorption sites in Aspergillus niger. Bioresource Technology 61(3): 221-227.
Kumari, P., Sharma, P., Shalini, S., and Srivastava, M. M. (2005). Arsenic removal from the aqueous system using plant biomass: a bioremedial approach, J. Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 32: 521–526.
Liu, C. C., Wang, M., Chiou, C., Li, Y., Yang, C., and Lin, Y. (2009). Biosorption of chromium, copper and zinc by wine-processing waste sludge: Single and multi-component system study. Journal of Hazardous Materials 171: 386-392.
Mataka, L. M., Henry, E. M. T., Masamba, W. R. L., and Sajidu, S. M. (2010). Cadmium sorption by Moringa stenopetala and Moringa oleifera seed powders: Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech 3: 131-139.
Ozturk, A. (2007). Removal of nickel from aqueous solution by bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, J. Hazard. Master 147: 518–523.
Paula, M. A., Gonçalves, J. R., Affonso, C., Teixeira, T., César, R., Stangarlin, J. R., Rubio, F., Nacke, H. (2013). Studies of Pb2+ adsorption by Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds from an aqueous medium in a batch system. Water Science & Technology Academic Journal 69(1): 163.
Rao, H. J., Kalyani, G., Rao, K. V., Kumar, T. A., Mariadas, K., Kumar, Y. P., Vijetha, Pallavi, P., Sumalatha, B., and Kumaraswamy, K. (2010). Kinetic studies on biosorption of lead from aqueous solutions using eggshell powder. International Journal of Biotechnology and Biochemistry 6(6): 957 – 968.
Sajidu, S. M. I., Henry, E. T., Persson, I., Masamba, W. R. L., and Kayambazinthu, D. (2013). pH dependence of sorption of Cd2+, Zn2+, Cu2+ and Cr2+ on crude water and sodium chloride extracts of Moringa stenopetala and Moringa oleifera. African journal of chemistry 1(2): 063-066.
Selatnia, A., Bakhti, M. Z., Madani, A., Kertous, L., Mansouri, Y. (2004). Biosorption of Cd2+ from aqueous solution by a NaOH treated bacterial dead streptomyces rimosus biomass, hydrometallurgy 75: 11–24.
Taffarel, S. R., and Rubio, J. (2009). “On the removal of Mn2+ ions by adsorption onto natural and activated Chilean zeolites,” Minerals Engineering 22(4): 336–343.
Ting, V. P., Lawson, F., and Prince, I. G. (1995). Biotechnol. Bioeng. 3: 990–999.
Veglio, F., and Beolchini, F. (1997). Removal of metals by biosorption: a review. Hydrometallurgy 44(3): 301-316.
Waghmare, V. H., and Chaudhari, U. E. (2014). Equilibrium uptake and sorption dynamics for the retrieval of divalent manganese from aqueous solution using Moringa oleifera bark. Rasayan J. Chem 7(3), 214 – 218.
Yan, G. Y., and Viraraghavan, T. (2003). Heavy-metal removal from aqueous solution by fungus Mucor rouxii. Water Res. 37: 4486-4496.
Yun, Y. S. (2004). Characterization of functional groups of protonated Sargassum polycystum biomass capable of binding protons and metal ions. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 14: 29.