Effect of Mesoporous Catalysts on the Mainstream Tobacco Smoke of 3R4F and 1R5F Reference Cigarettes
American Journal of Chemical Engineering
Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2015, Pages: 1-18
Received: Feb. 16, 2015;
Accepted: Mar. 2, 2015;
Published: Mar. 8, 2015
Views 2044 Downloads 153
Antonio Marcilla Gomis, Dpto. Ingeniería Química, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. 99, 03080 Alicante, Spain
Amparo Gómez Siurana, Dpto. Ingeniería Química, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. 99, 03080 Alicante, Spain
Deseada Berenguer Muñoz, Dpto. Ingeniería Química, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. 99, 03080 Alicante, Spain
Isabel Martínez Castellanos, Dpto. Ingeniería Química, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. 99, 03080 Alicante, Spain
Maribel Beltrán, Dpto. Ingeniería Química, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. 99, 03080 Alicante, Spain
The effect of three synthesised mesoporous catalysts (a SBA-15 and two MCM-41) on the smoke of two reference tobaccos (1R5F and 3R4F) has been studied. Mixtures of the catalysts and each tobacco were smoked under the ISO 3388 standard conditions. The gaseous compounds and the particulate matter condensed in the filter tip (TPM-F) and in a trap located downstream (TPM-T) from the mainstream smoke were analysed separately. The results obtained show that these catalysts directly mixed with tobacco are capable of reducing the yield of most of the compounds studied in the mainstream tobacco smoke. SBA-15 is a better additive for reducing the amount of the compounds analysed in 1R5F and 3R4F tobaccos, both in the liquid fraction (TPM-F and TPM-T) and in the gas fraction. The effect of the studied catalysts is higher on the full-flavour cigarette than on the ultra-low one. As an example, the reductions observed for CO and nicotine in TPM-T from 3R4F as a consequence of the SBA-15 addition were 46% and 77%, respectively. Thus, although the three checked materials are able to provide noticeable reductions, the best is the one having the higher size of pores (SBA-15).
Antonio Marcilla Gomis,
Amparo Gómez Siurana,
Deseada Berenguer Muñoz,
Isabel Martínez Castellanos,
Effect of Mesoporous Catalysts on the Mainstream Tobacco Smoke of 3R4F and 1R5F Reference Cigarettes, American Journal of Chemical Engineering.
Vol. 3, No. 1,
2015, pp. 1-18.
M. Borgerding, H. Klus, "Analysis of complex mixtures-cigarette smoke", Exp. Toxicol. Pathol., vol. 57, pp. 43-73, 2005.
M.E. Counts, M.J. Morton, S.W. Laffoon, R.H. Cox, R.H., P.J. Lipowicz, "Development of a commercial cigarette "market map" comparison methodology for evaluating new or non-conventional cigarettes", Regul. Toxicol. Pharm, vol. 41, pp. 185-227., 2005.
D. Hammond, G.T. Fong, K.M. Cummings, R.J. O’Connor, G.A. Giovino, A. McNeill, "C0igarette Yields and Human Exposure, A Comparison of Alternative Testing Regimens", Cancer Epidem. Biomar., vol. 15, pp. 1495-1501, 2006.
A. Marcilla, A. Gómez-Siurana, D. Berenguer, I. Martínez-Castellanos, M.I. Beltrán, "Comparative study of the main characteristics and composition of the mainstream smoke of ten cigarette brands sold in Spain", Food Chem. Toxicol., vol. 50, pp. 1317-1333, 2012.
R.R. Baker, L.J. Bishop, L.J., "The pyrolysis of non-volatile tobacco ingredients using a system that simulates cigarette combustion conditions", J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol., vol. 74, pp. 145-170, 2005.
R.R. Baker, "Smoke generation inside a burning cigarette, modifying combustion to develop cigarette that may be less hazardous to health", Prog. Energ. Combust., vol. 32, pp. 373-385, 2006.
M.F. Borgerding, J.A. Bodnar, H.L. Chung, P.P. Mangan, C.C. Morrison, J.C. Risner, C.H. Rogers, D.F. Simmons, M.S. Uhrig, F.N. Wendelboe, D.E. Wingate, L.S. Winkler, "Chemical and biological studies of a new cigarette that primarily heats tobacco. Part 1. Chemical composition of mainstream smoke", Food Chem. Toxicol., vol. 36, pp. 169-182, 1998.
J. Fowles, E. Dybing, "Application of toxicological risk assessment principles to the chemical constituents of cigarette smoke" Tob. Control, vol. 124, pp. 424-430, 2003.
D. Hoffmann, I. Hoffmann, "The changing cigarette; 1950-1995", J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, vol. 50, pp. 307-364, 1997.
E. Roemer, R.A. Carchman, "Limitations of cigarette machine smoking regimens", Toxicol. Lett., vol. 2031, pp. 20–27, 2011.
E. Roemer, H. Schramke, H. Weiler, A. Buettner, S. Kausche, S. Weber, A. Berges, M. Stueber, M. Muench, E. Trelles-Sticken, J. Pype, K. Kohlgrueber, H. Voelkel, S. Wittke, "Mainstream smoke chemistry and in vitro and in vivo toxicity of the reference cigarettes 3R4F and 2R4F" Beitr. Tabakforsch., vol. 251, pp. 316-335, 2012.
W.M. Meier, K. Siegmann, "Significant reduction of carcinogenic compounds in tobacco smoke by the use of zeolite catalysts" Micropor. Mesopor. Mat., vol. 33, 307-310, 1999.
G. Yong, Z. Jin, H. Tong, X. Yan, G. Li, S. Liu, "Selective reduction of bulky polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from mainstream smoke of cigarettes by mesoporous materials", Micropor. Mesopor. Mat., vol. 91, pp. 238-243, 2006.
Z. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Tang, Z. Jia, "Adsorption of nicotine and tar from the mainstream smoke of cigarettes by oxidized carbon nanotubes", Appl. Surf. Sci., vol. 252, pp. 2933-2937, 2006.
Y. Xu, J.H. Zhu, L.L. Ma, A. Ji, J.L. Wei, X.Y. Shang, "Removing nitrosamines from mainstream smoke of cigarettes by zeolites" Micropor. Mesopor. Mat., vol. 60, pp. 125-138, 2003.
P. Li, M. Hajaligol, "Oxidant/catalyst nanoparticles to reduce carbon monoxide in the mainstream smoke of a cigarette" US Patent Application 20030075193; Kind Code A1, 2003.
R. Vesna, A. Sladjana, A. Borivoj, M.M. Abduladhim, "Effect of varied quantities of zeolite on the reduction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tobacco smoke", Afri. J. Biotechnol., vol. 1142, pp. 10041-10047, 2012.
W.G. Lin, Y. Zhou, F.N. Zhou, S.L. Zhou, J.H. Zhu, "Catalytic degradation of tobacco-specific nitrosamines by ferric zeolite", Appl. Catal. B-Environ., vol. 129, pp. 301-308, 2013.
Q. Deng, C. Huang, W. Xie, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Z. Hong, A. Pang, M. Wei, "Significant reduction of harmful compounds in tobacco smoke by the use of titanate nanosheets and nanotubes", Chem. Commun., vol. 47, pp. 6153-6155, 2011.
W.G. Lin, Y. Zhou, Y. Cao, S.L. Zhou, M.M. Wan, Y. Wang, J.H. Zhu, "Applying heterogeneous catalysis to health care, In situ elimination of tobacco-specific nitrosamines TSNAs in smoke by molecular sieves" Catal. Today., vol. 212, pp. 52-61, 2013.
A. Marcilla, A. Gómez-Siurana, D. Berenguer, I. Martínez-Castellanos, M.I. Beltrán, "Reduction of tobacco smoke components yields by zeolites and synthesized Al-MCM-41", Micropor. Mesopor. Mat., vol. 161, pp. 14-24, 2012.
A. Marcilla, M.I. Beltrán, A. Gómez-Siurana, I. Martínez, D. Berenguer, "Template removal in MCM-41 type materials by solvent extraction, Influence of the treatment on the textural properties of the material and the effect on its behaviour as catalyst for reducing tobacco smoking toxicity", Chem. Eng. Res. Des., vol. 8911, pp. 2330-2343, 2011.
A. Marcilla, A. Gómez-Siurana, M. Beltrán, I. Martínez, D.; Berenguer, "Evaluation of the efficiency of solvent extraction for template removal in the synthesis of MCM-41 type materials to be used as tobacco additives for smoke toxicity reduction", Applied Catalysis A-General, vol. 378, pp. 107-113, 2010.
A. Marcilla, I. Beltrán, A. Gómez, R. Navarro, D. Berenguer, I. Martínez, "Tobacco–catalyst mixtures for reducing the toxic compounds present in tobacco smoke", EURO-PCT078230349 2009.
A.F. Marcilla Gomis, A. Gómez Siurana, M.I. Beltrán Rico, I. Martínez Castellanos, D. Berenguer Muñoz, "Aluminosilicato sab–15 como aditivo para la reducción de los compuestos tóxicos y cancerígenos presentes en el humo del tabaco", Spain Patent P201201266 2009.
F. Zhang, Y. Yan, H. Yang, Y. Meng, C. Yu, B. Tu, D. Zhao, "Understanding Effect of Wall Structure on the Hydrothermal Stability of Mesostructured Silica SBA-15", J. Phys. Chem. B, vol. 109, pp. 8723-8732, 2005.
T.R. Gaydhankar, V. Samuel, R.K. Jha, R. Kumar, P.N. Josh, "Room temperature synthesis of Si-MCM-41 using polymeric version of ethyl silicate as a source of silica", Materials Research Bulletin, vol. 42, pp. 1473–1484, 2007.
L.Y. Chen, Z. Ping, G.K. Chuah, S. Jaenicke, G.A. Simon, "comparison of post-synthesis alumination and sol-gel synthesis of MCM-41 with high framework aluminium content", Micropor. Mesopor. Mat., vol. 27, pp. 231–242, 1999.
J. Aguado, D.P. Serrano, J.M. Escola, "A sol–gel approach for the room temperature synthesis of Al-containing micelle-templated silica", Micropor. Mesopor. Mat., vol. 34, pp. 43–54, 2000.