Investigation of Nanoskin Peculiarities Formed During Oxidation of Liquid Gallium Surface
American Journal of Nano Research and Applications
Volume 5, Issue 3-1, May 2017, Pages: 33-36
Received: Jan. 11, 2017;
Accepted: Jan. 12, 2017;
Published: Feb. 6, 2017
Views 3008 Downloads 73
Giorgi Kvinikadze, Republic Center for Structure Researches, Georgian Technical University, Tbilisi, Georgia
Elguja Kutelia, Republic Center for Structure Researches, Georgian Technical University, Tbilisi, Georgia
In the given work, the formation mechanism and kinetics of nano skin obtained on the super-pure (6N – 7N+) gallium melts surface during oxidation in air at temperature range 20 – 100°C is studied by methods of TG, SEM–EDX and AES. It is shown that, as a result of penetration of oxygen atoms (released by dissociative adsorption) in the layered subsurface with 5 – 6 atomic diameter thickness, transforms to amorphous gallium oxide elastic skin, such as continuous nanoshell of equal thickness ( 15 Å) on the whole surface of the melt. The growth of the mentioned oxide skin thickness formed in the first seconds, obeys more retarded linear kinetics up to 100°C, and after few hours its thickness reaches 50 nm. Further oxidation process in the atmospheric condition at room temperature practically stops.
Investigation of Nanoskin Peculiarities Formed During Oxidation of Liquid Gallium Surface, American Journal of Nano Research and Applications. Special Issue: Nanotechnologies.
Vol. 5, No. 3-1,
2017, pp. 33-36.
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
E. Di Masi, H. Tostmann, B. M. Ocko, P. S. Pershan, and M. Deutsch, “X-ray reflectivity study of temperature-dependent surface layering in liquid Hg,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 58, pp. R13419–R13422, 1998.
H. Tostmann, E. Di Masi, P. S. Pershan, B. M. Ocko, O. G. Shpyrko, and M. Deutsch, “Surface structure of liquid metals and the effect of capillary waves: X-ray studies on liquid indium,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 59, pp. 783–791, 1999.
M. J. Regan, P. S. Pershan, O. M. Magnussen, B. M. Ocko, M. Deutsch, and L. E. Berman, “Capillary-wave roughening of surface-induced layering in liquid gallium,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 54, pp. 9730–9733, 1996.
O. M. Magnussen, B. M. Ocko, M. J. Regan, K. Penanen, P. S. Pershan, and M. Deutsch, “X-Ray reflectivity measurements of surface layering in liquid mercury,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 74, pp. 4444–4447, 1995.
M. J. Regan, H. Tostmann, P. S. Pershan, O. M. Magnussen, E. Di Masi, B. M. Ocko, and M. Deutsch, “X-ray study of the oxidation of liquid-gallium surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 55, pp. 10786–10789, 1997.
E. Kutelia, D. Tsivtsivadze, B. Kutelia, and P. Kervalishvili, “Method of refinement gallium from impurities”, Patent GE #136A1(GE), C22B,9/00,58/00,1996.
E. Kutelia, B. Kutelia, and D. Tsivtsivadze, “Obtaining of nano-structured membrane for the purification of liquid gallium from impurities up to 8N,” In: “Proc. Int. Cong. Nanotechnol.,” San Francisco, 2005.
E. Kutelia, G. Kvinikadze, E. Sanaia, and T. Dzigrashvili, “Efficiency of application of super-pure gallium (≥ 7N+) obtained by membrane technology for production of high quality GaAs single crystals”, In: “Proc. Int. Sci. Conf. Adv. Mater. & Technol.,” Tbilisi, Universal, pp. 52 –54, 2015.
E. Kutelia, G. Kvinikadze, and T. Dzigrashvili, “Investigation of the isotopic abundance ratio in the super-pure (7N+) gallium melt obtained by the method of membrane purification”, Georg. Eng. News, vol. 1, pp. 45–49, 2014.
A. Ayyad and F. Aqra, “Theoretical consideration of the anomalous temperature dependence of the surface tension of pure liquid gallium,” Theo. Chem. Acc., vol. 127, pp. 443–448, 2010.