Major Reproductive Health Problems of Dairy Cows at Horro Guduru Animal Breeding and Research Center, Horro Guduru Wollega Zone, Ethiopia
Questionnaire survey together with longitudinal study (regular follow-up) were conducted from November, 2011 up to April, 2012 on major reproductive health problems of Horro and Horro-Jersey cross bred cows in and around Wollega University Horro Guduru Animal Breeding and Research Center. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of major reproductive health problems in Horro Guduru Animal Breeding and Research Center. From 402 (303 local and 99 cross breeds) assessed, employing questionnaire survey (n=261) and regular follow-up (n=141); 39.5% (n=159) had at least one of the major reproductive health problems. The reproductive health problems according to their relative importance at the study site were; retained fetal membrane, dystocia, metritis, abortion, milkfever, pyometre, repeat breeder, uterine and vaginal prolapse with their respective prevalence rate of 10.0%, 9.2%, 7.0%, 4.42%, 3.73%, 2%, 1.24%, 1.7% and 0.5%. This particular study indicated that clinical reproductive problems, which include retained fetal membrane, dystocia, metritis and abortion, were found to be the three most prevalent reproductive problems in the center. And from the risk factors, it is found out that as age increases almost the prevalence of all the three most important reproduction problems shown to decrease. Specifically there was a significant association between age of 3 - 5 years cow (p < 0.05, OR=5, CI (0.15, 0.88) and metritis. Similarly the effect of parity (lactation stage) on the prevalence rate of reproductive problems was assessed and there was non-significant (P > 0.05) association between prevalence rate of reproductive problems and the parity of the individual dairy cow. The reproductive problems were also assessed in relation to body condition score of the cows and the associations were found to be statistically not significant (P > 0.05). However, factors like hygiene practice at and around calving (HAC), was found to have an association with the occurrence of retained fetal membrane(P < 0.05) and statistical association indicates the presence of less exposure for retained fetal membrane for animals kept at good hygienic status (OR=8, CI (0.2, 0.76). This particular study showed that; clinical reproductive health problems, which include retained fetal membrane, dystocia and metritis, were one of the major reproductive problems responsible for the low reproductive performance of Wollega University Horro Guduru Animal Breeding and Research Center and its surrounding dairy cows, Horro Guduru Wollega, West of Ethiopia.
Major Reproductive Health Problems of Dairy Cows at Horro Guduru Animal Breeding and Research Center, Horro Guduru Wollega Zone, Ethiopia, International Journal of Biochemistry, Biophysics & Molecular Biology.
Vol. 1, No. 1,
2016, pp. 18-24.
Plazier, J. C. B.; G. J. King; J. C. M. Dekkers, and K. Lissemore. (1997): Estimation of economic values of indices for reproductive performance in dairy herds using computer simulation. J. Dairy Sci. 80: 2775–2783.
Msangi, B. S.; M. J. Bryant and P. J. Thorne. (2005): Some factors affecting variation in milk yield in crossbred dairy cows in smallholder farms in North-East Tanzania. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 37: 403-412.
Arthur, G. H.; Noakes, D. E. and Person, H. (1996): Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetirics. Theriogenology 6th ed. BaillierTindall UK, Pp. 83-85.
Shiferaw, Y.; Tenhang, B. A.; Bekana, M. and Kasa, T. (2003): Reproductive performance of cressbred Dairy cows in different production system in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 25: 551-561.
Abebaw. G.; Frew. W. and Shiferaw. M. (2011): Assesement of small holder dairy Production System and Their Reproductive Health Problems in Jimma Town, South Western Ethioppia. Jimma University College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Jimma, Ethiopia. Intern J. App/Res Vet.Med. 9 (1).
Sirohi, N. S.; Monga, D. P., and Knar, S. K. (1989): Microbiological studies on some reproductive disorders of cattle. Indian Journal of Animal Science, 59 (5): 537-541.
Shiferaw, Y.; Tenhagen, B. A.; Bekana, M. and Kassa, T. (2005): Reproductive disorders of crossbred dairy cows in the central highlands of Ethiopia and their effect on reproductive performance. Trop. Anim. Health Pro. 37: 427-441.
Lobago, F.; M. Bekana, H.; Gustafsson and Kindahl, H. (2006): Reproductive performance of dairy cows in smallholder production system in Selalle, central Ethiopia. Trop. Anim. Health, 38: 333-342.
LaBlanc, S. J.; Duffield, T. F.; Leslie, K. E.; Betaman, K. G.; Keefe, G. P.; Walton, J. S. and Johnson, W. H. (2002): Defining and diagnosing postpartum clinical endometritis and its impact on reproductive performance in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 85: 2223-2236.
Gilbert, R.; Shin, S. T. and Guard, C. L. (2005): Prevalence of endometritis and it is effect on reproductive performance of dairy cows. Theriogenology, 64: 1879-1888.
Sheldon, I.M. and Dobson, H. (2004): Postpartum uterine health in cattle. Journal of Animal Reproduction Science, 82–83:295–306.
Sheldon, I. M. and Hillary, D. (2004): Postpartum uterine health in cattle. Animal Reproduction Science, 82-83, 295-308.
Takele, A.; Gizaw, Y. and Bekana, M. (2005): Major reproductive health problems of smallholder dairy production in and around Nazareth town, central Ethiopia. DVM thesis. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Debrezeit, Ethiopia.
CSA, (2011): The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Central Statistical Authority, Ethiopia.
Camper, J. P. (2004): Animal Identification and recording Systems the South African Development Community (SADC); Overview of the Current situation. October2004. Proceeding of Workshop on Development of Animal Identification and Development System for Developing Countries, 29 May 2004. ICAR Technical Series No. 9.
Richard, W. (1993): Dairying Tropical Agriculturalist. 1stEdn., Macmillan Press Ltd., London, pp: 56.
Thrusfield, M. (2005): Veterinary Epidemiology. 3rdEdn, Blackwell Publishing, Incorporated, Ames, Iowa.
Melkamu, T. (1999): Studies on major post partum reproductive problems in Holleta Research Station and small holder dairy cattle. DVM Thesis, AAU, FVM, DebreZeit, Ethiopia.
Berisha, K. (1990): Major conistrients of reproduction in small-scale dairy farms around Addis Ababa, Ethiopia DVM Thesis, FVM, Debre-Zeit.
Tesfaye, G. (1996): Survey on major peripartum and post partumreproductive problems of dairy cattle in Mekelle and its environs. DVM Thesis, FVM, AAU, Debrezeit, Ethiopia.
Gebremariam, T. (1996): Survey on major prepartum and postpartum reproductive problems of dairy cattle in Mekelle and it is Environs. DVM Thesis, AAU, FVM, Debrezeit, Ethiopia.
Kassahun, M. (2003): Major clinical reproductive problems of smallholder dairy cows in and around Awassa. DVM thesis. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University, DebreZeit, Ethiopia.
Tadesse, M. (1999): Major postpartum reproductive problems in Holleta research station and smallholder dairy cattle. DVM Thesis. FVM, AAU, DebreZeit, Ethiopia.
Tigrie, W. (2004): Major clinical reproductive health problems of dairy cows in and around Holleta. DVM thesis. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Debrezeit, Ethiopia.
Correa, M. T.; Dougal, S. K. and Erb, H. (1993): Path analysis for seven postpartum disorders of Holstein cows. Journal of. Dairy Science, 76: 1305–12.
Mammo, T. (2004): Study on major postpartum reproductive problems of smallholder dairy cows in and around DebreZeit. DVM thesis. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University, DebreZeit, Ethiopia.
Yoseph, S. (1999): Fertility status of cross breed dairy cows under different production system in Holleta. M.Sc. Thesis, Central High Lands of Ethiopia, DebreZeit, Ethiopia.
Noakes, D. E.; Parkinson, T. J.; England, G. C. W. and Arthur, G. H. (2002): Arthur’s Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetirics, 8th ed., Elsevier Sci. Ltd, London.
Zewdu, H. (1992): Studies on post partum uterine infection in Zebu and Zebu crosses and the incidence rate of reproductive disease in DebreZeit, ILCA herd. DVM Thesis. FVM, AAU, DebreZeit, Ethiopia.
Ebrahim, O. (2003): Study on major reproductive health problem of small holder dairy farms in and around Kombolcha. DVM Thesis, AAU, FVM, DebreZeit, Ethiopia.
Ruder, C. A.;Sasser, R. G.; Williams, R. J.; Fly, J. K.; Bull, R. C. and Butler, J. E. (1990): Uterine infections in the post partum cow, possible synergistic effects of Fusobacteriumnecrophorum and corynebacteriumpyogens. Theriogenology, 15: 573-780.
Tackacs, J.; Gathy, T.; Macanty, Z. and Bajmocy, E. (1990) Bacterial contamination of the uterus after parturition and its effect on the reproductive performance of cows of large scale dairy farms. Theriogenology, 3: 851-861.
Hatchinson, L. J. (1996): Troble shooting infertility problems in dairy cattleA review. Biritain Veterinary Journal, 143: 226-228.
Mekonnen, D. (2000): Study on major infertility problems of cross bred dairy herds in Ada’adistrict of central Ethiopia. DVM thesis .Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University, DebreZeit, Ethiopia.
Tekeleye, B.; Kasali, O. B. and Gashaw, T. (1992): Reproductive problems in indigenous cattle of the Ministry of Agriculture-farms in central Ethiopia. Trop. Agr. (Trinidad), 69: 247-249.
Oumer Mohammed, E. (2003): Study on major reproductive health problems of smallholder dairy farms in and around Kombolcha. DVM thesis. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Debrezeit Ethiopia.
Forer, A. I.; Gay, J. M. and Hancock, D. D. (1995): The frequency of endemic fetal loss in dairy cattle: A Review. Theriogenology, 43: 989-1000.
Bitew. M and Prasad. S. (2011): Study on major reproductive health problems in indigenous and cross breed cows in and around Bedele, South West Ethiopia. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 10 (6): 723-727.
Mukasa-Mugerwa, E.; Ephraim Bekele and Taddese Tessema. (1991): Type and productivity of indigenous cattle in Central Ethiopia. Tropical Animal Health and Production (in press).