Environmental Factors Associated with Acute Diarrhea among Children Under Five Years of Age in Derashe District, Southern Ethiopia
Science Journal of Public Health
Volume 1, Issue 3, July 2013, Pages: 119-124
Received: Jun. 3, 2013;
Published: Jun. 20, 2013
Views 1557 Downloads 600
Wanzahun Godana, Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia
Bezatu Mengiste, Schools of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia
Background: Diarrhea alone kills more children than AIDS, malaria, and measles combined. Knowing the determinants of a disease enables us to design an effective intervention. Objective: To identify the factors associated with acute diarrhea among Children less than five Years of Age in Derashe district, south Ethiopia. Methods: A community based unmatched case-control study was employed in rural kebeles of the district. The collected data were entered in Epi Info version3.5.3. Data analyses were done using SPSS for windows version 16.0. Descriptive analysis was used to describe the data. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to measure the association between the dependent variable and independent variables calculating odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval (CI). Statistical significance was set at α. ≤ 0.05. Multivariable analyses were applied to identify the relative effect of explanatory variables on the dependent variable. Results: The study revealed that the occurrence of diarrhea was significantly associated with the lack of latrine ownership (AOR: 2.43, CI:1.19-4.87), lack of home based water treatment (AOR: 2.25, CI:1.43-3.56) improper disposal of infant feces [AOR:3.35, 95% CI (1.45-4.13)]and lack of improved water sources (AOR: 1.98, CI:1.16- 2.23).Conclusions and recommendation: The determinants of acute diarrhea in this study were that of high preventive value; latrine ownership, availability of home based water treatment and source of water. The authors of the study recommend health education on different mechanisms in diarrheal disease causation and prevention methods.
Environmental Factors Associated with Acute Diarrhea among Children Under Five Years of Age in Derashe District, Southern Ethiopia, Science Journal of Public Health.
Vol. 1, No. 3,
2013, pp. 119-124.
Kosek, M., C. Bern, and R.L. Guerrant The magnitude of the global burden of dirrhoeal disease from studies published 1992-2000 Bulletin of WHO 2003. 81: p. 197-204.
Pruss-Utun A, Kay D, Fewtrell L, Bartram J. Unsafe water, Sanitation and Hygiene. Comparative qualification of health risks. Geneva; WHO, 2004.p 1321-1351.
Nyantekyi, A., Mengistu, L., Mulugeta, B., Konjit, T., Keberten, M. and Chanda, M. Intestinal parasitic infections among under-five children and maternal awareness about the infections in Shesha Kekele, Wondo Genet, Southern Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development. 2010; 24(3): 185-190
Shimelis D. Effect of Zinc supplementation in treatment of acute diarrhoea among 2-59 months children treated in Black Lion Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development. Dec. 2008; 22(2).186-90
USAID. Integrating sanitation and water supply proprams. Anuual report in Africa, 2010.
Jill W, Wenjing, T., Jenny L. and Forsberg B. Diarrhoeal Diseases in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. The Open Infectious Diseases Journal. 2010.4 (123):113-124
Barreto, M., Genser,B., Strina, A., Gloria, T., Marlucia, O., Rita , Rego., Carlos ,Teles., Matildes, S., Prado, M., Matos, A., Santos,D., Cairncross,S.2007. Effect of city-wide sanitation programme on reduction in rate of childhood diarrhoea in northeast Brazil: assessment by two cohort studies. Lancet 2007; 370: 1622–28
Wondwossen B. A stepwise regression analysis on under-five diarrhael morbidity prevalence in Nekemte town, western Ethiopia: Maternal care giving and hygiene behavioral determinants. East African Journal of Public Health Volume 5 Number 3 December 2008.p 193-198.
Green S, Small J, Casman A. Determinants of National Diarrhoeal Disease Burden. Environmental Science & Technology 2009 vol. 43, no. 4, pp123-31
WHO/ UNICEF. Why children are dying and what to be done? 20 Avenue Appia, 2009,1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland; p12-29
Girma R, Wondwossen B, Bishaw D and Tefera B. Environmental determinants of diarrhoea among under-five children in Nekemte Town, western Ethiopia. Ethiopia Jornal of Health Sciences 2007. 18(2 ): 39-44
Amare D, Fassil T & Belaineh G. Determinants of under-five mortality in Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center, Southwest Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development. 2007; 21(2):117-124.
Tesfahun A. and Mekasha A .Determinants of diarrhoeal diseases: a community based study in urban south western Ethiopia. East African Medical Journal 2003. Vol. 80 No. 2, 77-82
Vafaee A, Moradi A, Khabazkhoob M. Case-Control Study of acute diarrhoea in Children: Dept. of Health and Management, School of Health and Paramedical Science, Mashhad University of Medical Science, Iran Journal Research and Health Sciences 2008, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 25-32.
Usman A, Rahaem A, Angola B. Exploring the Social and Environmental Determinants of Child Health in Ilorin, Nigeria. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management 2009.Vol.2 No.3,p 73-82
Genser B, Strina A, Teles C, Prado M and Barreto M. Risk factors for acute diarrhoea incidence: dynamic analysis of a longitudinal study, Epidemiology; salvador, Brazil. International Journal of Epidemiology 2006. 17 (6):658-667
Andualem A. Assessment of the impact of latrine utilization on diarrhoeal diseases in the rural community of Hulet Ejju Enessie Woreda, East Gojjam Zone, Amhara Region. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development. 2010; 24(3).110-18
Fewtrell L, Kaufmann B, Kay D, Enanoria W, Haller L, Colford J. Water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions to reduce diarrhoea in less developed countries. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infectious Disease 2005. 5: 42–52.
Clasen T, Schmidt W, Rable T, Roberts I and Cairncross S. Interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea: Systematic review and meta-analysis. British medical journal 2007. 334, 782-791.
Bettenheim M. The sanitation environment in urban slums: implications for child health, Popul Environ 2008.30:26–47
Barklay L. Hand-washing can reduce diarrhoea by 30%. Cochrane Database Systematic Review, published document 2008.
Ehiri E, Ejemot I, Meremikwu M and Critchley A. Hand-washing for preventing diarrhoea. Cochrane database of systematic reviews 2008. (1). Art.No.: CD004265.
Luby S, Halder A, Unicomb T, Huda L and Richard B. The Effect of Handwashing at Recommended Times with Water Alone and With Soap on Child Diarrhoea in Rural Bangladesh: An Observational Study. Public library of Science Medicine 2011. 8(6): e1001052. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001052.
Takanashi K, Chonan Y, Quyen DT, Khan NC, Poudel KC and Jimba M. Survey of food-hygiene practices at home and childhood diarrhoea in Viet Nam. Journal of Health & Population Nutrition 2009. 27(5):602-611.
Mediratta P, Amsalu F, Lawrence H, Sisay Y and Sack R. Risk Factors and Case Management of Acute Diarrhoea in North Gondar Zone, Ethiopia. Journal of Health Population and Nutrition 2010. 28(3): 253–263
Muluken D. Does the effect of water and sanitation vary by maternal education on childhood diarrhoea among under-five children in Mecha district, west Gojam, Ethiopia. Master thesis, Addis Ababa University, 2009.
Teklu M. Socio-economic, environmental and behavioral factors associated with occurrence of diarrhoea among under-five in Maskenena Mareko woreda, southern Ethiopia. Master thesis, Addis Ababa University, 2003.