Prevalence and Determinants of Childhood Diarrhoea among Graduated Households, in Rural Area of Shebedino District, Southern Ethiopia, 2013
Science Journal of Public Health
Volume 2, Issue 3, May 2014, Pages: 243-251
Received: Dec. 31, 2013; Accepted: May 30, 2014; Published: May 30, 2014
Views 2020      Downloads 465
Authors
Alemu Tamiso, Departments of public health, Unit of epidemiology and biostatistics, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia
Mezgebu Yitayal, Institute of public health, Departments of epidemiology and biostatistics/health management and health economics, University of Gondar, Ethiopia
Akilew Awoke, Institute of public health, Departments of epidemiology and biostatistics/health management and health economics, University of Gondar, Ethiopia
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Background: Despite dramatic declines in deaths due to diarrheal disease among infants and children in developing countries, diarrhea remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Even though Rota vaccine is not available to decrease morbidity and mortality due to diarrheal disease, Ethiopian government endorsed health extension program at 2004 and through it, the country was increasing latrine coverage and utilization, creating positive behavioral change in household level regarding personal hygiene and environmental sanitation to decrease the morbidity due to diarrhea, even though diarrhea remains second common cause of under-five mortality in the country. So the aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and determinants of childhood diarrhea among graduated households in rural area of Shebedino district, Southern Ethiopia. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was carried out in April 2013. A multi -stage sampling to reach household and systematic random sampling technique was used to select 769 graduated households that had at least one under-five children. Data were collected using a pre-tested and structured questionnaire by trained nurses. Bivariate and hierarchical logistic regression analyses were undertaken to identify determinant of childhood diarrhea. Results: Seven hundred sixty nine households were enrolled in the study making a response rate of 98.8%. The prevalence of childhood diarrhea was found to be 19.6 %,( 95% CI: (16.8, 22.4). The household graduated before 2003 EC ([AOR: 1.83, 95% CI (1.16, 2.89), two or more under five children [AOR: 1.96, 95% CI (1.23,3.12)], history of maternal diarrheal morbidity [AOR: 5.76, 95% CI:(3.50, 9.47)], mode of feeding by cup[AOR:2.13,95%CI:(1.09, 4.13)], and malnutrition [AOR:4.06,95% CI :(2.54-6.50)]were determinants of childhood diarrhea. Conclusion: Prevalence of childhood diarrhea was high. Time of household graduation, kebeles, and maternal diarrheal illness, mode of feeding and nutritional status were determinants of childhood diarrhea. Refreshing the graduated households on minimum of every two years and health extension program should focus on child care practice to prevent and control childhood diarrhea.
Keywords
Childhood Diarrhea, Graduated Household, Health Extension Program, Hierarchical Logistic-Model, Ethiopia
To cite this article
Alemu Tamiso, Mezgebu Yitayal, Akilew Awoke, Prevalence and Determinants of Childhood Diarrhoea among Graduated Households, in Rural Area of Shebedino District, Southern Ethiopia, 2013, Science Journal of Public Health. Vol. 2, No. 3, 2014, pp. 243-251. doi: 10.11648/j.sjph.20140203.28
References
[1]
Gerald T. Keusch OF, Alok Bhargava, et al. Diarrheal disease: DT. Breman JG MA, et al, editor. Disease control priorities in developing countries. 2nd edition, ed. washington World bank; 2006. p. 371- 85.
[2]
UNICEF. Level and trends in child mortality: New york: 2011.
[3]
Ethiopia Demographic and health survey (EDHS), Central Statistics Authority & ORC Marco. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and Calverton, Maryland, USA: 2011.
[4]
Regassa G, BW, Deboch B, Belachew T. Environmental determinant of diarrhea among under five children in Nekemte Town, Western Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Sci. November 2007;18(2):40-5. Epub July 2008.
[5]
Dessalegn M, KA, Tefera W. Predictors of under-five childhood diarrhea at Mecha District, West Gojam, Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Dev. 2009;25(3):193-9. Epub 2011.
[6]
Bethany Caruso RS, and Juan S. Leon. Maternal behavior and experience, care access, and agency as determinants of child diarrhea in Bolivia,. Rev Panam Salud. 2010 December; 28(6):10.
[7]
Mulugeta T. Socio-economic, environmental, and behavioral factors associated with the occurrence of diarrheal disease among under-five children, Meskana Mareko Woreda, Southern Ethiopia [MPH thesis]: AAU; 2003.
[8]
Kloos H. Primary health care in Ethiopia under three political systems: community participation in a war-torn society. Social science & medicine (1982). 1998 Feb-Mar;46(4-5):505-22. PubMed PMID: 9460830. Epub 1998/02/14. eng.
[9]
Kedir B, Nejmudin CHH, Feng Zhao et al. Health extension workers in Ethiopia: Improved access and coverage for the rural poor. 2011. p. 434-43.
[10]
Hailom B. Ethiopia’s Health extension program: Improving health through Community Involvement. Medicc Review. july 1011;13(3).
[11]
Dessalegn Muluken KA, Tefera Worku. Predictors of under-five childhood diarrhea at Mecha District, West Gojam, Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Dev. 2009;25(3):193-9. Epub 2011.
[12]
Calitus Wilunda AP. Factors associated with diarrhea among children less than 5 years old in Thailand: A Secondary analysis of thailand multiple indicator cluster survey 2006, J Health Res 2006;23(suppl ):5. Epub 2009.
[13]
Olufunke F OO. Prevalence and Treatment of Childhood Diarrhea among Nigerian Ethnic Groups. The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology 2003;Vol. 7:5. Epub 2008.
[14]
Regassa Girma BW, Deboch Bishaw, Belachew Tefera. Environmental Determinant of Diarrhea among under five children in Nekemte Town, Western Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Sci. November 2007;18(2):40-5. Epub July 2008.
[15]
Andualem Anteneh Ak. Assessment of the impact of latrine utilization on diarrhoeal Diseases in the rural community of Hulet Ejju Enessie Woreda, East Gojjam Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiop. J Health Dev. 2006;24(2). Epub 2010.
[16]
USAID, End of Project Evaluation For the Urban Health Extension Program. Addis Abeba: 2012.
[17]
Woldemichael G. diarrheal morbidity among young children in Eritrea: Environmental and socioeconomic determinants. J Health Popul Nutr. 2001 Jun;19(2): 83-90.
[18]
Oni, GA. infant feeding practices, socioeconomic conditions and diarrheal disease in a traditional area of urban Ilorin, Nigeria. Est. Afr. Med. J. 1996; 73(5): 283-288.
[19]
Calitus Wilunda AP. Factors Associated with Diarrhea among Children Less than 5 Years old in Thailand: A Secondary Analysis OF Thailand Multiple Indicator Cluster survey 2006,. J Health Res 2006;23(suppl ):5. Epub 2009.
[20]
WHO. The Hygiene Improvement Framework, A Comprehensive Approach for Preventing Childhood Diarrhea. Geneva, Swizerland Available from: www.ehproject.org.
[21]
Program. Gd. Water, Sanitation & Hygiene. August 2012; Available from: www.gatesfoundation. org.
[22]
Behailu Silesh RG, Mamo Dereje, Dimtse Desta, and Peter Newborne, Promoting Sanitation and Hygiene to rural households in SNNPR, Ethiopia: Experiences of Health Extension Workers and Community Health Promoters. 2010.
[23]
Anand K, Sundaram KR, Lobo J, Kapoor SK. Are diarrheal incidence and malnutrition related in under five children? A longitudinal study in an area of poor sanitary conditions. Indian pediatrics. 1994 Aug;31(8):943-8. PubMed PMID: 7883347. Epub 1994/08/01. eng.
[24]
Checkley W, Gilman RH, Black RE, Lescano AG, Cabrera L, Taylor DN, et al. Effects of nutritional status on diarrhea in Peruvian children. The Journal of pediatrics. 2002 Feb;140(2):210-8. PubMed PMID: 11865273. Epub 2002/02/28. eng.
[25]
Destaw B. Prevalence and associated factors for diarrhoeal disease among under five children in dabat district, North west Ethiopia (Gondar Universty Master thesis). 2009.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
548 FASHION AVENUE
NEW YORK, NY 10018
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-688-8931