Prevalence and Forms of Sexual Harassment of Girls by Male Students of Secondary Schools in Ohafia LGA, Abia State
Science Journal of Public Health
Volume 3, Issue 3, May 2015, Pages: 433-444
Received: Mar. 28, 2015; Accepted: Apr. 10, 2015; Published: May 23, 2015
Views 4297      Downloads 85
Pamella Chima Uduma, Department of Health and Physical Education, Faculty of Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State
Effiong S. Samuel, Department of Health and Physical Education, Faculty of Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State
Olaoluwa Samson Agbaje, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Madonna University Elele, Rivers State, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
The study investigated prevalence and forms of sexual harassment of girls by male students of secondary schools in Ohafia Local Government Area-LGA, Abia State. Five specific objectives with corresponding research questions and three null hypotheses guided the study. The cross-sectional survey research design was used for the study. The multi-stage sampling procedure was used to draw a sample of 600 out of 2,400 girls who enrolled in secondary schools during 2011/2012 academic session. Two instruments were used for data collection: A researcher-designed instrument titled Questionnaire on Prevalence and Forms of Sexual Harassment of Girls (QPFSHG) and Sexual Harassment of Girls Focus Group Discussion Guide (SHGFGDG). Split–half method was used to determine the reliability of the entire instrument (QPFSHG) using Spearman–Brown correction formula statistic. Also, Kuder-Richardson-20 formula was used to establish the inter-item reliability co-efficient of the subscale which had nominal data. The reliability co-efficient obtained for the subscale was .77. The data collected were analyzed using frequency and percentage. The hypotheses were tested using Chi-square (2) statistic at .05 level of significance. Based on the findings, the researchers recommended among others that the school authority should establish an office for reporting cases of sexual harassment where confidentiality should be entrenched to encourage victims to lodge complaints and also, there is need to educate girls about sexuality, and human rights. Furthermore, commensurate punitive actions should be taken against sexual harassment offenders when convicted to serve as deterrence to other male students.
Sexuality, Harassment, Advocacy, Vulnerability, Sexual Coercion
To cite this article
Pamella Chima Uduma, Effiong S. Samuel, Olaoluwa Samson Agbaje, Prevalence and Forms of Sexual Harassment of Girls by Male Students of Secondary Schools in Ohafia LGA, Abia State, Science Journal of Public Health. Vol. 3, No. 3, 2015, pp. 433-444. doi: 10.11648/j.sjph.20150303.30
United Nations Children Emergency Fund (1989). Contention on the right of the child. Reviewed from
United Nations Education, Scientific and cultural Organization (1978). International charter of physical education and sports. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and dance. Washington D.C.
National Population Commission (2009). Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2008 Abuja: National Population Commission.
Adeyinka, AA. (2010). Sexual abuse of the girl – child in urban Nigeria and implications for the transmission of HIV/AIDS. Journal of Gender and Behaviour, 7(3), 48-68.
Andrews G et al. (2004). Child sexual abuse. In: Ezzati M, et al, eds. Comparative quantification of health risks: global and regional burden of disease attributable to selected major risk factors. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Dube SR et al. (2005). Long-term consequences of childhood sexual abuse by gender of victim. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 28(5), 430–38.
Patel V, Andrew G. (2001). Gender, sexual abuse and risk behaviours in adolescents: a cross-sectional survey in schools in Goa. National Medical Journal of India, 14(5):263–67.
WHO (2010). Addressing violence against women and HIV/AIDS. What works? Report of a consultation. Geneva: World Health Organization and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS).
Federal Republic of Nigeria (1981). National Policy on Child and Children Education in Nigeria: Federal Republic of Nigeria.
New Zealand Hockey Federation (2001). Harassment in Hockey. Retrieved from http://www.nzicehockey.conz/nations2006/NZHF.EventsManual July, 2006.Pdf
Robinson, KH. (2005). Reinforcing hegemonic masculinities through sexual harassment: issues of identity, power and popularity in secondary schools. Gender and Education, 17 (1), 19 – 37.
American Association of University Women (2002). Hostile hallways: Bullying, teasing, and sexual harassment in school. Theoretical and Psychology 17, (4), 425 – 445.
Brackenridge, C., & Fasting, K. (2006). Consensus statement: sexual harassment and abuse in sport. Retrieved from on August 12, 2012.
Fitzgerald, LF, Gelfand, MJ, & Drasgow, F. (1995). Measuring sexual harassment: theoretical and psychometrical advance. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 17 (4), 425-445.
Timmerman, MC, & Bajema, CW. (1997). Sexual Harassment in European Workplaces: A review of research in 11 member states (1987 - 1997). Accessed from http://www.unorg/women watch/osagi/pdf/shworkp/.pdf
Witkowska, E, & Menckel, E. (2005). Perception of Sexual Harassment in Swedish High Schools: Experiences and school-environment problems. European Journal of Public Health, 15(1), 78–85.
Ajuwon, JJ, Olley, BO, Akin, JI, & Akintola, O. (2001). Experience of sexual coercion among adolescents in Ibadan, Nigeria. Afr. J. Reprod. Health, 5(3), 120-131.
Jejeebhoy SJ, & Bott, S. (2003). Non–consensual sexual experiences of young people: A Review of the evidence from developing countries. New Delhi, India: Population Council.
Connecticut Women’s Education and Legal Fund (2000). Sexual harassment in schools. Assessed from http://209.85_165_104 Research on June 11, 2011.
Mama, IA, (December, 1996). Violence against Nigerian Women in Reflection. The Sunday Guardian, pp. 41.
Oppong, C. (1995). A high price to pay for education subsistence and a place in the job market. Health Transition Review, Supplement, 5, 35 – 56.
Glanz, K, Rimer, BK, & Viswanath K, eds. (2008). Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice (4th ed). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Glanz, K, & Bishop, D. (2010). The role of behavioral science theory in development and implementation of public health interventions. Annu Rev Public Health, 31,399-418.
Noar, SM, Benac, CN, & Harris, MS. (2007). Does tailoring matter? Meta-analytic review of tailored print health behavior change interventions. Psychol. Bulletin, 133,673-693.
Noar, SM. (2008). Behavioral interventions to reduce HIV-related sexual risk behaviour: Review and synthesis of meta-analytic evidence. AIDS Behaviour, 12, 335-353.
Tangri, SS, Burt, M R, & Johnson, LB. (1982). Sexual harassment at work: Three explanatory models. Journal of Social Issues, 38, 33–54.
Tangri, SS, & Hayes, S M. (1997). Theories of sexual harassment. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Gutek BA, & Morasch, B. (1982). Sex-ratios, sex-role spillover, and sexual harassment of women at work. Journal of Social Issues, 38, 55–74.
Young, EL, Allen, M, & Ashbaker, BY. (2004). Sexual Harassment. National Association of School Psychologists (NASP). S5, 99-102. Retrieved from
Goldstein, SE, Malanchuk O, Davis-Kean PE, et al. (2007). Risk factors of sexual harassment by peers: A longitudinal investigation of African American and European American adolescents. J Res Adolescent, 17, 285–300.
Campbell, L, & Christian, SB. (2008). Perceived experiences with sexism among adolescent girls. Journal of Child Development, 79(3), 685-704.
Grover, GL, & Mangle, DW. (2003). Adolescent perception of problematic heterosexual situation: A focus group study. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 32, (2), 129 – 139.
Akanle, FF. (2011). Sexual coercion of adolescent girls in Yoruba land of Nigeria. Current Research Journal of Social Sciences 3(2), 132-138.
Young, A, Grey, M, Abbey, A, Boyd, CJ, & Mccabe, SE. (2008, January). Alcohol-related sexual assault victimization among adolescents: prevalence, characteristics, and correlates. J Stud Alcohol Drugs, 69(1), 39–48.
Ismail, MN, Chee, LK, & Bee, CF. (2007). Factors influencing sexual harassment in the Malaysian workplace. Asian Academy of Management Journal, 12 (2), 15–31.
Olley, BO. (2008). Child sexual abuse as a risk factor for sexual risk behaviours among
socially disadvantaged adolescents in Ibadan, Nigeria, Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 3(3), 243-248.
Abe, I. (2012). Defining and Awareness of Sexual Harassment among Selected
University Students in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria. Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies (JETERAPS), 3 (3), 212-218.
Dahinten SV. (1999). Peer sexual harassment: A barrier to the health of adolescent females? Can J Nurs Res, 31(2), 41–52.
Vaughan, JP, & Morrow, RH. (1989). Manual of epidemiology for district health management. Geneva: WHO, 175-179.
Gorard, S (2003). Quantitative methods in social science. London: Continuum.
Science Publishing Group
NEW YORK, NY 10018
Tel: (001)347-688-8931