Situational Analysis of Access to Improved Sanitation in the Capital of Ethiopia and the Urgency of Adopting an Integrated Fecal Sludge Management (FSM) System
Science Journal of Public Health
Volume 3, Issue 5, September 2015, Pages: 726-732
Received: Jul. 31, 2015;
Accepted: Aug. 5, 2015;
Published: Aug. 14, 2015
Views 5443 Downloads 212
Abebe Beyene, Department of Environmental Health Science and Technology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia
Taffere Addis, Department of Environmental Health Science and Technology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia
Tamene Hailu, Research and Development Directorate, Ministry of Water, Irrigation and Energy (MoWIE), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Esubalew Tesfahun, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Mikiyas Wolde, Research and Development Directorate, Ministry of Water, Irrigation and Energy (MoWIE), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Kebede Faris, Water and Sanitation Programme (WSP), the World Bank, Ethiopia Country Office, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
In the faces of alarming urbanization and the high demand for basic sanitation, there are debts that urban sanitation in Sub-Saharan Africa has been steadily improving in one hand and worsening on the other hand in the recent decades. The objective of this research was to investigate the status of urban sanitation coverage in relation to Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 2015 target and the major gaps of fecal sludge management (FSM) system. For this purpose, we conducted the sanitation coverage survey in the urban slums of Addis Ababa and we compared it with the nationwide sanitation inventory conducted by Ethiopian Minister of Water, Irrigation and Energy (EMWIE) in 2014. The results revealed that only 11.4% of urban slum residents have access to improved sanitation. This sanitation coverage is by far lower than the improved sanitation coverage of the capital city (41.2%) and the national urban sanitation coverage (27%). Open defecation being a common practice in urban areas of Ethiopia accounts 8.2%, 5.8% and 8.0% for urban slums of the capital and all urban areas of the country respectively. Despite the increasing trend in urban sanitation coverage in Ethiopia, it is far from the MDG target and the majority of urban residents are living under severe health and environmental risks. The urban poor are the ones mainly excluded from the basic sanitation services. Most sanitation facilities (about 91%) in Addis Ababa are onsite sanitation that requires pit emptying nevertheless 85.4% of the residents dissatisfied with the pit emptying services. As results of the severe constraints of pit emptying and FSM services, most toilet facilities (about 50%) were full. The FSM system is totally ineffective to tackle environmental pollution and public health risks. This calls an urgent action towards the development of integrated FSM system that ensures environmental safety and targets valorization of human waste
Situational Analysis of Access to Improved Sanitation in the Capital of Ethiopia and the Urgency of Adopting an Integrated Fecal Sludge Management (FSM) System, Science Journal of Public Health.
Vol. 3, No. 5,
2015, pp. 726-732.
Sclar, E.D., Garau, P. and Carolini, G. (2005). The 21st century health challenge of slums and cities. Lancet, 365: 901-903.
Beyene, A., Hailu, T., Faris, K., & Kloos, H. (2015). Current state and trends of access to sanitation in Ethiopia and the need to revise indicators to monitor progress in the Post-2015 era. BMC public health, 15(1), 451.
WHO (2010). Why urban health matters. World health day 2010. Available at: http://www.who.int/world-health-day/2010/media/whd2010background.pdf. Accessed on 20 June 2014 at 8:00 AM GMT.
WHO and UNICEF (2014). Progress on Drinking Water and Sanitation: 2014 Update. World Health Organization, Geneva and United Nations Children’s Fund, New York.
UN-Habitat (2014). Situation Analysis of Informal Settlements in Addis Ababa. UN-Habitat. United Nations, Human Settlements Programme, Nairobi, Kenya.
WHO & UNICEF (2008). Progress on Drinking Water and Sanitation-Special Focus on Sanitation. WHO Press, Geneva, Switzerland.
Cairncross, S. and Valdmanis, V. (2006). Water Supply, Sanitation, and Hygiene Promotion. In: Jamison, D.T. Breman, J. G., Measham, A.R., et al (Eds.). Disease control priorities in developing countries. 2nd Edition. World Bank, World Bank and Oxford University Press, Washington, DC, pp 771-792.
Hutton, G. (2013). Global costs and benefits of reaching universal coverage of sanitation and drinking-water supply. J Water Health, 11:1-12.
MoUDC (2014), Urban Sanitation Strategy. The federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Ministry of Urban development and Construction (MoUDC), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
UN-Habitat (2007). Situation Analysis of Informal Settlements in Addis Ababa. UN-Habitat. United Nations, Human Settlements Programme, Nairobi, Kenya.
Kvarnström E, McConville J, Bracken P, Johansson M, Fogde M. The sanitation ladder-a need for a revamp? Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development. 2011;1:3-12.
Bartram, J., & Cairncross, S. (2010). Hygiene, sanitation, and water: forgotten foundations of health. PLoS Medicine, 7(11), e1000367.
Daniel, W. W., & Cross, C. L. (2008). Biostatistics: a foundation for analysis in the health sciences. 9th edition, Shon, Wily, & Sons Inc. New Jersey, USA.
Abraha, M. W., & Nigatu, T. H. (2009). Modeling trends of health and health related indicators in Ethiopia (1995–2008): a time-series study. Health Res Policy Syst, 7(1), 29.
Ethiopian-CSA (2014). Ethiopia Mini Demographic and Health Survey 2014. Ethiopian Central Statistical Agency (CSA), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Ethiopian-MWIE (2014). Unpublished data from Ethiopian Ministry of Water, Irrigation and Energy. Personal communication.
Isunju, J. B., Schwartz, K., Schouten, M. A., Johnson, W. P., & van Dijk, M. P. (2011). Socio-economic aspects of improved sanitation in slums: A review. Public health, 125(6), 368-376.
Pullan RL, Freeman MC, Gething PW, Brooker SJ (2014) Geographical Inequalities in Use of Improved Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation across Sub-Saharan Africa: Mapping and Spatial Analysis of Cross-sectional Survey Data. PLoS Med 11(4): e1001626.
Eshete, N., Beyene, A., & Terefe, G. (2015). Implementation of Community-led Total Sanitation and Hygiene Approach on the Prevention of Diarrheal Disease in Kersa District, Jimma Zone Ethiopia. Science Journal of Public Health, 3(5), 669-676. doi: 10.11648/j.sjph.20150305.22
Gebru, T., Taha, M., Kassahun, W. (2013). Prevalence of Diarrheain Under-Five Children among Health Extension Model and Non-Model Households in Sheko District Rural Community, Southwest Ethiopia. Science Journal of Public Health, 1(5), 230-234. doi: 10.11648/j.sjph.20130105.18
Konteh, F. H. (2009). Urban sanitation and health in the developing world: reminiscing the nineteenth century industrial nations. Health & place, 15(1), 69-78.
Cairncross, S., Bartram, J., Cumming, O., & Brocklehurst, C. (2010). Hygiene, sanitation, and water: what needs to be done?. PLoS medicine, 7(11), e1000365.
Hopewell, Mike R., Graham Jay P. (2014). Trends in access to water supply and sanitation in 31 major Sub-Saharan African cities: an analysis of Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from 2000 to 2012. BMC Public Health 14, 208.
Bhagwan, J. N., Still, D., Buckley, C., & Foxon, K. (2008). Challenges with up-scaling dry sanitation technologies. Water Science and Technology, 58(1), 21.
Katukiza, A. Y., Ronteltap, M., Oleja, A., Niwagaba, C. B., Kansiime, F., & Lens, P. N. L. (2010). Selection of sustainable sanitation technologies for urban slums—A case of Bwaise III in Kampala, Uganda. Science of the total environment, 409(1), 52-62.
Beyene, A., Addis, T., Kifle, D., Legesse, W., Kloos, H., & Triest, L. (2009a). Comparative study of diatoms and macroinvertebrates as indicators of severe water pollution: Case study of the Kebena and Akaki rivers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Ecological Indicators, 9(2), 381-392.
Beyene, A., Legesse, W., Triest, L., & Kloos, H. (2009b). Urban impact on ecological integrity of nearby rivers in developing countries: the Borkena River in highland Ethiopia. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 153(1-4), 461-476.
Nyenje, P. M., Foppen, J. W., Uhlenbrook, S., Kulabako, R., & Muwanga, A. (2010). Eutrophication and nutrient release in urban areas of Sub-Saharan Africa-a review. Science of the Total Environment, 408(3), 447-455.
Beyene, A., Yemane, D., Addis, T., Assayie, A. A., & Triest, L. (2014). Experimental evaluation of anaerobic digestion for coffee wastewater treatment and its biomethane recovery potential. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 11(7), 1881-1886.