Clinical Association Between Alterations of Boron, Cesium, Rhenium and Rubidium with the Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis
American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Volume 3, Issue 5, September 2015, Pages: 247-254
Received: Sep. 22, 2015; Accepted: Sep. 28, 2015; Published: Oct. 15, 2015
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Shatha Rouf Moustafa, College of Pharmacy, Hawler Medical University, Havalan City, Erbil, Iraq
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Abstract
Background and Objectives: Certain trace elements are now being investigated as possibly having a role in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, the possible association between (boron, cesium, rhenium and rubidium) with atherosclerosis that, trace elements may be directly or indirectly involved in cardiovascular disease processes including atherosclerosis. This study was aimed to measure the serum levels of boron, cesium, rhenium and rubidium in Iraqi patients with atherosclerosis as compared with the control group, in addition to study the role of other confounding factors age, gender and finally estimate the correlation coefficient between the studied parameters. Method: This case control study conducted on 40 patients of both genders 15 men and 25 women with the mean age (52.4 ± 10) years and 40 of apparently healthy adults age and gender matched were also enrolled in this study as a control group for comparing purposes. The patients were free from any diseases except atherosclerosis and this was confirmed by clinical examination and biochemical and hematological tests. Serum levels of parameters were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometers. Results: There were a significant reductions in the level of rubidium and boron while, there was a significant elevation in the serum level of rhenium in patients group as compared with the control group, and there was no significant difference between studied group regarding cesium. There was no age and gender effects on the level of focused parameters and there was a significant weak negative correlation between age and Rb (r=-0.38, p=0.016). Conclusion: Boron and rubidium were significantly reduced, so supplementation could be important for therapy and even more necessary for individuals who are at high risk of developing atherosclerosis. While the level of rhenium was significantly elevated in patients and there was no significant variation in level of cesium. These variations could be proved the possible correlation with pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Therefore, the estimation of these elements could be an important complementary diagnostic tool to determine trace elements status for therapy and diagnosis. These alterations are could be due to oxidative stress and inflammation which affect the trace elements homeostasis in patients with atherosclerosis. Boron, cesium, rhenium, rubidium are a natural element and micronutrient in human, they would be meaningful to compare these trace elements in atherosclerotic patients and controls for evaluating these elements as a biomarkers of the risk assessment, early detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and prevention of atherosclerosis.
Keywords
Atherosclerosis, Boron, Cesium, Rhenium, Rubidium
To cite this article
Shatha Rouf Moustafa, Clinical Association Between Alterations of Boron, Cesium, Rhenium and Rubidium with the Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis, American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Vol. 3, No. 5, 2015, pp. 247-254. doi: 10.11648/j.ajcem.20150305.19
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Copyright © 2015 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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