The Protection Effect of Topical Cocoa Extract on Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimer (CPD) Formation and Tissue Neutrophil in Mice Induced by Ultraviolet B
American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Volume 4, Issue 6, November 2016, Pages: 160-165
Received: Sep. 18, 2016; Accepted: Sep. 27, 2016; Published: Oct. 19, 2016
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Authors
Utin Variantini, Departement of Dermatology and Venereology, Medical Faculty, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia
Safruddin Amin, Departement of Dermatology and Venereology, Medical Faculty, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia
Anni Adriani, Departement of Dermatology and Venereology, Medical Faculty, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia
Idham Jaya Ganda, Departement of Biostatistic, Faculty of Public Health, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia; Department of Pediatric, Medical Faculty, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia
Gemini Alam, Departement of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia
M. Husni Cangara, Departement of Anatomical Pathology, Medical Faculty, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia
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Abstract
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has dangerous effects on the skin that may cause multiple clinical and cellular effects, which will produce DNA damage characterized by formation of photoproducts such as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD), and acute inflammation characterized by neutrophil infiltration in the skin tissues. Cocoa flavanols are natural anti inflammatory molecules that has a role in preventing cutaneous UV damage. The aims of this study are to assess protection effects of topical cocoa extract against formation of CPD and tissue neutrophils caused by ultraviolet B radiation. This study is a true experimental study using mice as animal model, conducted at animal laboratory of Hasanuddin University and Sentra Diagnostic Patologia Laboratory from April to Mei 2016. Total of samples were 30. Protection effects of CPD formation occur with application of 200 ppm cocoa extract, with frequency of negative and weak CPD expression were 60% and 40%, respectively. There was an increased in protection with application of 400 ppm cocoa extract, with frequency of negative and weak CPD expression were 80% and 20%, respectively, and there was decrease of protection with application of 800 ppm cocoa extract, with frequency of negative and weak CPD expression were 40% and 60% respectively. The group which only exposed with UVB has higher mean of tissue neutrophils (mean=10,4), and groups with application of 400 ppm and 800 ppm cocoa extract have lowest mean of tissue neutrophils (mean=1,4). There was no significant differences between groups with application of 400 ppm and 800 ppm cocoa extract. The best protection effects on CPD formation and tissue neutrophil achieved with application 400 ppm of cocoa extract.
Keywords
Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimer, Tissue Neutrophil, Ultraviolet B
To cite this article
Utin Variantini, Safruddin Amin, Anni Adriani, Idham Jaya Ganda, Gemini Alam, M. Husni Cangara, The Protection Effect of Topical Cocoa Extract on Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimer (CPD) Formation and Tissue Neutrophil in Mice Induced by Ultraviolet B, American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Vol. 4, No. 6, 2016, pp. 160-165. doi: 10.11648/j.ajcem.20160406.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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