Environmental Management Compliance, Law and Policy Regimes in Developing Countries: A Review of the Zambian Case
International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy
Volume 3, Issue 4, July 2015, Pages: 79-87
Received: May 28, 2015;
Accepted: Jun. 6, 2015;
Published: Jun. 19, 2015
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Cuthbert Casey Makondo, Environmental Engineering Department, Copperbelt University, Kitwe, Zambia
Sydney Sichilima, Environmental Engineering Department, Copperbelt University, Kitwe, Zambia
Matthews Silondwa, Environmental Engineering Department, Copperbelt University, Kitwe, Zambia
Richard Sikazwe, Environmental Engineering Department, Copperbelt University, Kitwe, Zambia
Lombe Maiba, Environmental Engineering Department, Copperbelt University, Kitwe, Zambia
Chawezi Longwe, Environmental Engineering Department, Copperbelt University, Kitwe, Zambia
Yvonne Chiliboyi, Institute for Water Research, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, Republic of South Africa
This paper is a review of environmental management compliance of the extractive industry; particularly mining in Zambia and the government’s commitment to environmental protection in view of sustainable development .The main objective of this work was to review industrial compliance against Zambia’s environmental legal regime for the period between 2009 and 2014, track environmental policy development, its implementation within the institutional functional framework in view of precautionary principle, polluter pays principle and sustainability. The authors concluded that while the environmental legal framework may be considered relatively new compared to developed nations like United Kingdom, it dates back to the 1970s and is comparable in terms of strength, to that of developed nations. However, there are many challenges regarding effective implementation. Thus, although there are many stiffer and tougher regulations enacted in Zambia (to a point where some advocates of neo-classical frontiers economics have criticized Zambia as slowly introducing one-more among the most highly regulated environmental sectors in the world, deterring development) the authors concluded that implementation was a huge challenge: implementation of Zambia’s environmental regulatory regime faces wide range of problems, from a highly centralized financial and decision-making system and budgetary allocation of negligible size, to lack of appropriate tools, equipment and personnel technical capacity. It was found that while the environmental regulations have been further stiffened around 2011-2013; compliance of mining companies was lagging behind. This was evidenced by failure of 8 in 10 mining firms to submit periodic reports as per regulatory conditions on their permits. Cases of discharging and disposing of hazardous waste to gain savings from the expenses that would otherwise arise through normal disposal procedures still exist. The authors concluded that while new and stronger measures have been put in place by government to ensure that the environmental degradation caused by mining and other extractive industry activities are adequately managed, the measures are not working effectively. These findings are consistent with the findings of the 2014 Auditor General’s Report. It was clear that co-ordination within the government’s regulatory institutional framework with interacting mandates was weak, while the selective nature on the application of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) regulations was demeaning environmental protection and socio-economic justice.
Cuthbert Casey Makondo,
Environmental Management Compliance, Law and Policy Regimes in Developing Countries: A Review of the Zambian Case, International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy.
Vol. 3, No. 4,
2015, pp. 79-87.
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