Epidemiological Study of HCV and HIV Infections in Relation to Certain Demographic Factors Among the Ante-Natal Population Within Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria
International Journal of Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Volume 1, Issue 1, December 2016, Pages: 13-21
Received: Oct. 31, 2016;
Accepted: Nov. 18, 2016;
Published: Dec. 27, 2016
Views 2839 Downloads 94
Chanu Iliyasu, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria
Auwalu Uba, Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science and Science Education, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria
Muhammad Yusha’u, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria
Anthony John Dadah, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria
Timothy Waje, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria
Hepatitis C and HIV are blood borne infections of the human population including pregnant women globally. These Viruses are of global concern because of the significant challenges they pose to public health with over 36.7 million people leaving with HIV around the whole world. This research determined the prevalence of HCV, HIV and HCV-HIV co infection among pregnant women attending ante-natal in selected hospitals within the Kaduna metropolis. A total of 500 samples were collected from pregnant women on ante-natal in 5 different hospitals within the metropolis. One hundred samples were collected from each of the hospitals visited. Each sample was analyzed for HCV and HIV antibodies respectively using commercially available kits. Results analysis revealed prevalence rates of 1.4% for HCV, 5.80% for HIV and 0.40% HCV-HIV co-infection among the subjects. Chi square statistics for test of independence between 2 variables showed significant associations between HCV positivity and history of more than 2 sexual partners (p≤0.01), Age group between 36-40 years (p≤0.02), Unknown gestational age and 4-6 months respectively (p≤0.0002, p≤0.03). These were identified as potential risks for HCV contraction. On the other hand, there was no significant association between any of the demographic factors and HIV positivity which showed that exposure to the HIV causes infection regardless of any demographic factor. There is low prevalence of HCV, high prevalence of HIV and low prevalence of HCV-HIV co-infection among the ante-natal population within the metropolis.
Anthony John Dadah,
Epidemiological Study of HCV and HIV Infections in Relation to Certain Demographic Factors Among the Ante-Natal Population Within Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria, International Journal of Infectious Diseases and Therapy.
Vol. 1, No. 1,
2016, pp. 13-21.
Duru M. U., Aluyi H. S. A., Anukam K. C. (2009). Rapid screening for co-infection of HIV and HCV in pregnant women in Benin City Edo State, Nigeria, African Health, 9 (3), 137-142.
Levinson, W. (2013). Review of Medical Microbiology. Twelve Edition, McGraw Hill Companies Inc. pp. 324-326.
Inyama P. U., Uneke O. J., Anyama G. T., Njoku O. M., Idoko J. A. (2005). Prevalence of antibody to Hepatitis C Virus among Nigerian patients with HIV infections. Online Journal of Health and Allied Sciences. 2:2 Volume 4, pp. 1-6.
Arash Mohebati, John Mihrah Davis and Donald E. Fry (2010). Current risks of occupational blood borne viral infections. Surgical infections volume 11. Number 3. pp. 1-8.
Lynn E. Taylor, Tracy Swan and Kenneth H. Mayer (2012). HIV Coinfection with Hepatitis C Virus: Evolving Epidemiology and Treatment. Clinical infectious disease. Volume 55, Issue supp1. pp. S33-S42.
Negasse Berhe, Desalegu Tegabu and Mekuriaw Alemayehu (2013). Effects of nutritional factors on adherence to antiviral therapy among HIV-infected adults: a case cohort study in Northern Ethiopia. BMC infectious diseases: Doi 10. 1186/1471-2334-13-233.
Modou Jobarteh, Marine Malfroy, Ingrid Peterson, Adam Jeng, Ramu Sarge-Njie, Abraham Alabi, 1Kevin Peterson, Matt Cotten, Andrew Hall, Sarah Rowland-Jones, Hilton Whittle, Richard Tedder, Assan Jaye and Maimuna Mendy (2010). Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Virus in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected Gambians. Virology Journal doi. 1186/1743-422x-7-230.
Syed Asad Ali, Rafe M. J. Donahue, Huma Qureshi, Sten H. Vermund (2009). Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C in Pakistan: Prevalence and Risk Factors. International Journal of Infectious Disease. 13. 9-19.
Laiya Devi Goyal, Sharanjit Kaur, Neerja Jindal and Harpreet Kaur (2014). HCV and Pregancy. Prevalence, Risk Factors and Pregnancy outcomes in North Indian Population: A case-control study. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India. doi. 10. 1007/s13224-014-0548-x.
Rubina Sabir, Ozma Noor Osman, Tabassum Mahboob (2013). Frequency of HBsAgand Anti-HCV IN Ante-Natal population. JUMDC Volume 4, Issue 2, pp37. 41.
Nagababu Pyaddla, Soumendra Nathmaity, Jyothnath Kothapalli, Anbreesh K. Goud, Radaneeh Borugadda, Prudhvi Chand Makepadd, Rathnagiri, Polavarapu (2016). Seroprevalence of HCV infection among pregnant women in a rural teaching hospital Sangareddy, India. International Journal of Research Development in Pharmacy and Life Sciences. Volume 5. No 4, pp. 2251-2254.
Khamis H. H., Farghaly A. G., Shatat H. Z., El-Ghitany E. M. (2006). Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus infections among pregnant women in a rural District in Egypt. PubMed. National Institute of of Health. doi. 10. 1177/004947551.
Oluboyo, B. O., Ugochukwu V. I., Olubuyo A. O., Ihim A. C., Chukwuma G. O., Ogenyi S. I., Oyenmelukwe A. (2014). Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C Viral infections in pregnant women attending ante-natal Clinic in Nnewi, Nigeria. European scientific Journal Volume 10, No 3, ISSBN 1857-788 pp. 434-441.
Sheyin Z, Jatau E. D., Mamman A. I., Randawa A. J. and Bugwan A. I. (2012). Detection of Hepatitis C Virus among pregnant women in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Wudpecker Journal of Medical Sciences. Volume 12. pp. 12-15.
Opaleye O. O., Igboama M. C., Ojo J. A., Odewale G. (2016). Seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and HTLV among pregnant women in South Western Nigeria. Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry. 37 (1). 29-42Pubmed Doi. 1080/1532189-2015, 1040/60.
Angelica Espinosa Miranda, Valdir Monteiro Pinto, Willi Mc Farland and Kimberly Page (2014). HIV infection among young parturient women in Brazil: Prevalence and associated risk factors. NCBI. National Institute of Health. doi. 10. 1007/s10461-013-0534-9.
Cynthia L. Gay, Victor Nwapasa, David M. Murdoch, Jesse J. Kwiek, Susan Fiscus, Steven R. Meshnick and Myron S. Cohen (2010). Acute HIV infection among pregnant women in walawi. National Institute of Health Diagn Microbiol Infectious Diseases. 66 (4). pp. 356-360. doi. 10. 1016.
R. Kabera and L. King (2013). Prevalence of HIV infection among Pregnant women at Kabutare District Hospital Rwanda. East and Central African Journal of Surgery. Volume 18, No 3, . 89-93.
A. S. Sagay, S. H. Kapiga, G. E. Imade, J. L. Sankale, J. Idoko (2005). HIV infection among pregnant women in Nigeria. International Journal of Gynecology and obstetrics 99. 61-67.
Obi, R. K., Iroagba, I. I. and Ojiako, O. A. (2007). Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection among pregnant women in an ante-natal clinic in Port-Harcourt, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology. Volume 6 (3). pp. 263-266.
I. S. Ndams, I. A. Joshua, S. A. Luka, H. O. Sadiq, S. B. Ayodele (2010). Human Immunodeficiency Virus seroprevalence among pregnant women in Minna, Nigeria. Annals of Nigerian Medicine. Volume4, Issue1 pp. 14-17.
Baronceli S., Pirillo M. F., Amici R., Tamburrini E., Genovese O., Ravizza M., Maccabruni A., Masuelli G., Guaralli G., Liuzzi G., Panneti C., Glacomet V., Degli Antoni A., Vimercati A., Dalzero S., Sacchi V. and Florida M. (2016). HCV-HIV Coinfected pregnant women: Data from a multicentre study, Italy. Nature Journal Volume 44, Issue 2. pp. 235-242.
Moctar T. A. Zeba, Simplice D. Karou, Tani Sagna, Florencia Djigma, Cyrille Bisseye, Djeneba Ouermi, Virginio Pietra, Salvatore Pignatelli, Charlemagne Gnoula, Josept D. Sia, Remy Moret, Jean-Baptiste Nikiema and Jacques Simpore (2011). HCV Prevalence and Coinfection with HIV among pregnant women in Saint Camille Medical Centre, Ouagadougou. Tropical Medicine and International HealthVolume 16, No1 pp. 1392-1396.
Nicole Ngo-Giang-Huong, Gozangue Jourdain, Wasna Sirirungsi, Luc Decker, Woottichai Khamduang, Sophie Le Coeur, Surat Sirinotankan, Rosalin Somsamai, Karin Pagdi, Jittapol Hemvuttiphan, Kenneth Mclntosh, Francis Barin, Marc Lalleman (2010). Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Hepatitis C Virus coinfection in pregnant women and perinatal transmission to infants in Thailand. International Journal of Infectious Disease. Volume 14, Issue 7, pp. 602-607.
Opaleye O. O., Igboama M. C., Ojo J. A. and Odewale G. (2016). Seroprevalence of, HBV, HCV and HTLV among Pregnant in Southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry. 37 (1). 29-42.
Agwale S. M., Tanimoto L., Womack C., Odama L., Leung K., Duey D., Negedu-Momoh R., Audu I., Mohammed S. B., Inyang U., Graham B., Ziermann R. (2004). Prevalence of HCV coinfection in HIV infected individuals in Nigeria and characterization of HCV genotypes. Journal of Clinical Virology. Volume 31. Supplement 1, pp. 3-6.
Isa, I. M., Abdullahi, S. A., Sani, M. A., Esona, M. D. (2015). Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus in a tertiary institution in North Western Nigeria. African Journal of Microbiology Research. Volume. 9 (3), pp 171-179, 21.
Arya, R., Autonisamy, B., Kumar, S. (2012). Sample Size Estimation in Prevalence Studies, Indian Journal of Pediatrics Volume 79, Issue 11, pp 1482-1488.
Waje Timothy, Muhammad Yusha’u, Dadah Anthony, Maikaje Dominic Bawa (2016). A comparative study on Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) Seroprevalence between Outpatients in Public and Private Hospitals within Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria. American Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease. Volume 4, Issue 3. pp. 47-63.
Jason J. Pirozzolo, Donald C. Lemay (2007). Blood Borne Infections. Clinics in Sports Medicine. Volume 26, Issue 3, pp. 425-431.
http://www. cdc. gov/niosh/topics/bbp/genres. html. 2016.
Favour Osazuwa, Onah Victor Obinna and Anikwe Victor Chika (2012). Sero-epidemiology of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B and C among pregnant women in Rural Communities of Abaji Area Council, Nigeria. TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin: 11 (4), pp. 431-438.
Mohammed Hanafiah K., Groeger J., Flaxman S. T., Wiersma S. T. (2013). Global Epidemiology of Hepatitis C infections: new estimates of age specific antibody to HCV. CDC: 2015 Hepatology: Volume 57, Issue 4. pp. 1333-1342.
Buseri, F. I., Seiyaboh, E. and Jeremiah, Z. A. (2010). Surveying Infections among pregnant women in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Journal of Global Infectious Disease. 2 (3). pp. 203-211.
Chinenye Gloria Anaedobe, Victor Ugochukwu Nwadikeand Adeola Fowotade (2016). Hepatitis C Virus among pregnant women in, Nigeria: Prevalence, Correlates and Coinfection with HIV. International journal of Tropical Disease and Health. 14 (1). pp. 1-11.
Zaccheaus Awortu Jeremiah, Baribefe Kaote, Fiekumo Buseri and Felix Emelike (2008). Prevalence of antibody to HCV in apparently healthy portharcourt blood donors and association with blood groups and other risk indicators. US national Liberary of Medicine: Blood Transfusion 6 (3): 150-155.
Kenneth G. Castro, M. D. John W. Ward, M. D. Laurence Slutsker, M. D., M. P. H. James W. Buehler, M. D. Harold W. Jaffe, M. D. Ruth L. Berkelman, M. D. (1993). Revised Classification System for HIV Infection and Expanded Surveillance case definition among adolscents and Adults. CDC Staff Report firstname.lastname@example.org.
Bala, J. A., Kawo, A. H., Mukhtar, M. D., Sarki, A., Magai, N., Aliyu, I. A. and Sani, M. N. (2012). Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus infections among blood donors in some selected hospitals in Kano, Nigeria. International Research Journal of MicrobiSerology (IRJM). ISSN: 2141. pp. 217-222.