Effect of Salt Stress on Some Growth Indicators and Cellular Components of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Callus
International Journal of Applied Agricultural Sciences
Volume 1, Issue 4, November 2015, Pages: 91-94
Received: Aug. 1, 2015;
Accepted: Aug. 18, 2015;
Published: Sep. 24, 2015
Views 7435 Downloads 2149
Helmee Hamed Khuder, Department of Field Crops, College of Agriculture, AL-Qasim Green University, Babylon, Iraq
Yusra Ismail Hussein AL-Taei, Department of Field Crops, College of Agriculture, AL-Qasim Green University, Babylon, Iraq
The experiment was conducted to study the effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) at the concentrations of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% on the callus cells. The Iraq wheat variety was grown in vitro for the purpose of knowing the effect of salt stress on some indicators and cellular components of callus by using a randomized complete design, at the laboratories of tissue culture propagation date palm unit in the College of Agriculture / University of Kufa during the period 2014-2015. Fresh and dry weight, the rate of absolute growth, percentage of dry matter of callus, content of the callus cells of proline, total soluble carbohydrates, sodium and potassium ions, effectiveness of the enzymes catalase and peroxidase study shock salt proteins in callus were determined as indicators of the effect of NaCl on the callus culture cells in the above salty medium and the results can be summarized, to control treatment achieved the highest average of (fresh callus weight, dry callus weight, the absolute growth rate of potassium ion), which was (0.0805 g, 6.13 mg, 3.147 mg / day and 1.125%) respectively, while the conc. 1.5% NaCl gave highest average in callus content of (proline, total soluble carbohydrates, sodium ion, the effectiveness of Catalase and Peroxidase enzyme and Salt shock proteins), which (0.134 mg / g, 2.9527 mg / g, 0.1050%, 0.1510 Micromol / protein / min, 0.1127 Micromol / protein / min and the emergence of small molecular weights), respectively.
Helmee Hamed Khuder,
Yusra Ismail Hussein AL-Taei,
Effect of Salt Stress on Some Growth Indicators and Cellular Components of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Callus, International Journal of Applied Agricultural Sciences.
Vol. 1, No. 4,
2015, pp. 91-94.
Braun, H. J.; G. Atlin and T. Payne. 2010. Multilocation testing as a tool to identify plant response to global climate change. In reynolds crp (Ed.). Climate change and crop production, CABI London UK.
Ashraf, M. and M. R. Foolad. 2007. Roles of glycine betaine and proline in improving plant biotic stress resistance. Environ. Exp. Bot., 59:206-216.
Munns, R.2005.Genes and salt tolerance: bringing them together. New Phytol., 167:645-663.
Terletskaya, N. and K. Nina.2010. Tissue culture in vitro as a model system for studying the effects of abiotic stresses on different species of wheat. Advances in Environmental Technology and Biotechnology, 1:102-107.
Fazeli-nasab, B.; O. Masour and A. Mehdi. 2012. Estimate of callus induction and volume immature and mature embryo culture and respons to in-vitro salt resistance in presence of NaCL and ABA in salt tolerant wheat cultivars. Intl Agri Crop Sci., 4(1):8-16.
El-Sayed, O. E.; 1A. A. Rizkalla and S. R. S. Sabri. 2007. In vitro mutagenesis for genetic improvement of salinity tolerance in wheat. Res. J. Agri. Bio. Sci., 4(5): 377-383.
Choudhary, M. R.; U. D. Muhammad.; M. S. Ghulam.; M. Erum and A. K. Salman.2009. Germination, growth and callus responses in EMS treated local cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under in vitro salt stress. J. Iran. Chem. Soc., 6:230-237.
Koutoua, A.; D. Hmouni; H. Elyacoubi ; R. Moutiq ; L. Zidane and A. Rochdi. 2015. Functional variation of potassium, sodium and chloride ions in selected salt- tolerant- calli from durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) mature embryo. J. Mater. Environ. Sci., 6 (5): 1285-1291.
Barakat, H.2003.Interactive effect of salinity and certain vitamins on gene expression and cell division. Int. J. Agri. Bio., 5(3):219-225.
Sen, A. and S. Alikamanoglu. 2011. Effect of salt stress on growth parameters and antioxidant enzymes of different wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties on in vitro tissue culture. Fress. Environ. Bull., 20: 489-495.
Sakthivelu, G.; M. K. Akitha Devi; P. Giridhar; T. Rajasekaran; G. A. Ravishankar; T. Nedev and G. Kosturkova. 2008. Drought-induced alterations in growth, osmotic potential and in vitro regeneration of soybean cultivars. Gen. Appl. Plant Physiol., (Special Issue) 34 (1-2): 103-112.
Bates, L. S.; R. P. Waldren and I. D. Teare. 1973. Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant Soil, 39:205-207.
Herbert, D.; P. J. Phillips and R. E. Strange. 1971. Determination of total carbohydrate. In: Norris, J. R. and Robbins, D. W. (eds.) Methods in Microbiology. chapter 3. pp. 209- 344. Academic Press, New York.
Sahaf, F. H.1989. Applied plant nutrition. Baghdad University. The Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research. Higher Education Press in Mosul. Iraq. p260.
Aebi, H. 1984. Catalase in vitro, Method of Enzymology. Plant Cell Physiol, 105:121-126.
Nezih, M. 1985. The peroxidase enzyme activity of some vegetables and its resistance to heat. Food Agric., 36:877-880.
John, M. W. 2002.The protein protocols handbook. University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK. Pp.61-67.
Alsahoeke, M. and K. M. Wahib. 1990. Applications in the design and analysis of experiments. The Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research. Baghdad University. Iraq. p.488.
Sairam, R. K. and A. Tyagi. 2004. Physiology and molecular biology of salinity stress tolerance in plants. Curr. Sci,. 86(3): 407-417.
Kavi Kishore, P. B. ; S. Sangam ; R. N. Amrutha ; P. S. Laxmi; K. R. Naidu ; K. R. Rao ; S. Rao ; K. J. Reddy ; P. Theriappan and N. Sreenivasulu. 2005. Regulation of proline biosynthesis, degradation, uptake and transport in higher plants: its implications in plant growth and abiotic stress tolerance. Curr. Sci., 88, 424–438.
Parida, S. K. and A.B. Das.2005. Salt tolerance and salinity effects on plants. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Safety.60:324-349.
Munns, R. and M. Tester. 2008. Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 59:651-681.
Kumar, S.; A. M. Reddy and C. Sudhakar. 2003. NaCl effects on proline metabolism in two high yielding genotypes of mulberry (Morus alba L.) with contrasting salt tolerance. Plant Sci., 165: 1245–1251.
Ashraf, M. and A. Orooj. 2006. Salt stress effects on growth, ion accumulation and seed oil concentration in an arid zone traditional medicinal plant ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi [L.] Sprague). J. Arid Environ., 64 : 209–220.
Hanafy-Ahmed, A. H.; H. M. Hassan; M. M. A. Gad and M. A. Amin. 2002. Micropropagation of Myrtus communis and increasing its tolerance to salinity stress by using polyamines. Proceedings of the 2nd Congress on Recent Technologies in Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University 28 – 30 October. Pp.995- 1011.
Greenway, H. and R. Munns. 1980. Mechanisms of salt tolerance in non halophytes. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol., 31: 149-190.
Gara, L. D.; M. C. Pinto and F. Tommasi. 2003. The antioxidant systems vis-a-vis reactive oxygen species during plant-pathogen interaction. Plant Physiol. and Biochem., 41:863-870.