Effect of Pre-emergence Herbicides on Weeds, Nodulation and Yield of Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) WALP.] at Haik and Mersa in Wollo, Northern Ethiopia
International Journal of Applied Agricultural Sciences
Volume 2, Issue 6, November 2016, Pages: 99-111
Received: Jul. 8, 2016; Accepted: Nov. 11, 2016; Published: Dec. 21, 2016
Views 4018      Downloads 238
Getachew Mekonnen, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Mizan Tepi University, Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia
Mekdes Dessie, Colleges of Agriculture, Wolkite University, Wolkit, Ethiopia
Article Tools
Follow on us
The experiment was conducted at Mersa and Haik, northern Ethiopia during the 2014 main cropping season to assess the effect of pre-emergence s-metolachlor and pendimethalin on nodulation, and yield of cowpea. There were 12 treatments comprising: s-metolachlor (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kg ha-1); pendimethalin (1.0, 1.3 and 1.6 kg ha-1), s-metolachlor at 1.0 kg ha-1 + hand weeding at 5 weeks after crop emergence (WAE), pendimethalin at 1.0 kg ha-1 + hand weeding at 5 WAE, one hand weeding at 2 WAE, two hand weeding at 2 and 5 WAE, weed free and weedy checks. The treatments were arranged in randomized complete block design with three replications. The minimum weed dry weight was registered with the application 2.0 kg ha-1 of s-metolachlor at both locations; however, at 55 DAE and at harvest, weeds accumulated significantly lower dry weight due to s-metolachlor 1.0 kg ha-1 and pendimethalin 1.0 kg ha-1 each pendimethalin superimposed with hand weeding at both locations. The interaction of location with weed management practices was significant on number and dry weight of nodules, number of pods plant-1, grain and aboveground dry biomass yield and yield loss. The maximum grain yield (4277 kg ha-1) was obtained in complete weed free treatment at Mersa which was statistically in parity with complete weed free and two hand weeding treatments at Haik and Mersa, respectively. Due to weed infestation throughout the crop growth, the highest yield loss (70.8%) was recorded at Haik while it was 47.5% at Mersa.
Hand-Weeding, Pendimethalin, S-metolachlor, Weed- Free, Yield Loss
To cite this article
Getachew Mekonnen, Mekdes Dessie, Effect of Pre-emergence Herbicides on Weeds, Nodulation and Yield of Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) WALP.] at Haik and Mersa in Wollo, Northern Ethiopia, International Journal of Applied Agricultural Sciences. Vol. 2, No. 6, 2016, pp. 99-111. doi: 10.11648/j.ijaas.20160206.14
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). 2012. World Agriculture: towards 2015/2030. Summary report, Rome.
Agbogidi, O. M. 2010. Screening six ciltivars of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) for adaptation to soil contaminated with spent engine oil. Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, 7: 103–109.
Muoneke, C. O., Ndukwe, O. M., Umana, P. E., Okpara, D. A. and Asawalam, D. O. 2012. Productivity of vegetables cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) and maize (Zea mays L.) intercropping system as influenced by component density in a tropical zone of southeastern Nigeria. International Journal of Agricultural Research and Development, 15: 835-847.
Shiringani, R. P. and Shimeles, H. A. 2011. Yield response and stability among cowpea genotypes at three planting dates and test environments. African Journal of Agricultural Resources, 6: 3259-3263.
Sankie, L., Addo-Bediako, K. O. and Ayodele, V. 2012. Susceptibility of seven cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) cultivars to cowpea beetle (Callosbruchus maculatres). Agricultural Science Research Journal, 2: 65-69.
Patel, M. M., Patel, A. I., Patel, I. C., Tikka, S. B. S., Henry, A., Kumar, D. and Singh N. B. 2003. Weed control in cowpea under rain fed conditions. Advances in Arid Legumes Research, 4: 203–206.
Li, R. G., Yumei, Z. and Zhanzhi, X. 2004. Damage loss and control technology of weeds in cowpea field. Journal of Weed Science, 2: 25–36.
Muhammad, R. C., Muhammad, J. and Tahira, Z. M. 2003. Yield and yield components of cowpea as affected by various weed control methods under rain fed conditions of Pakistan. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 9: 120-124.
Khan, I. G., Hassan, M. I., Khan, M. I. and Khan, I. A. 2004. Efficacy of some new herbicidal molecules on grassy and broadleaf weeds in wheat-II. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research, 10: 33-38.
Akobundu, I. O. 1987. Weed Science in the Tropics. Principles and Practices. pp 522. 2nd eds., John Wiley and Sons Inc. New York, USA.
Dadari, S. A. 2003. Evaluation of herbicides in cowpea or cotton mixture in Northern Guinea Savannah. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and Environment, 5: 153-159.
Singh, J. T., Vivek, H. B. and Tripathi, S. S. 2004. Integrated weed management in intercropping of mungbean (Vigna radiata) and cowpea fodder (Vigna unguiculata) with pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) under western U. P. condition. Indian Journal of Weed Science, 36: 133-134.
Lagoke, S. T. O., Choudhary, A. H. and Chandrasingh, D. J. 1982. Chemical Weed Control in Rainfed Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) in the Guinea Savanna Zone of Nigeria. Weed Research, 22: 17-22.
Stroud, A. 1989. Weed Management in Ethiopia. An Extension and Training Manual. FAO, Rome.
Singh, G., and D. Wright. 2012. In vitro studies on the effects of herbicides on the growth of rhizobia. Applied Microbiology 35: 12-16.
MoARD (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development). 2009. Animal and Plant Health Regulatory Directorate. Crop Variety Register. pp. 213. Issue. No. 12. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Payne, R. W., Murray, D. A., Harding, S. A., Baird, D. B. and Soutar, D. M. 2009. GenStat for windows (12nd edn.) Introduction. VSN International, Hemel, Hempstead.
Gomez, K. A. and Gomez, A. A. 1984. Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research (2d eds.). pp. 145. John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, USA.
CIMMYT (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center). 1988. From Agronomic Data to Farmer Recommendations: pp. 79. An Economics Training Manual. Completely revised edition. Mexico.
Gonzalez, P. R. and Salas, M. L. 1995. Weed control with metolachlor and atrazine in maize: Effects on yield and nutrition of the crop. Pp. 193-198. Proceedings 1995 Congress Spanish Weed Science Society, Huesca, Spain.
Sharma, G. D., Sharma, J. J. and Sood, S. 2004. Evaluation of alachlor, metolachlor and pendimethalin for weed control in rajmash (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in cold desert of North-Western Himalayas. Indian Journal of Weed Science, 36: 287-289.
Khan, S. A., Hussain, N., Khan, I. A., Khan, M. and Iqbal, M. 1998. Study on weed control in maize. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 14(6): 581-586.
Sharma, V., Thakur, D. R. and Sharma, J. J. 1998. Effect of metolachlor and its combination with atrazine on weed control in maize (Zea mays). Indian Journal of Agronomy, 43: 677-680.
Mahale, S. S. 1992. Integrated weed control measures on weed growth, yield and yield attributes in rainfed groundnut. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science, 65: 42-45.
Kumar, S., Sharma, G. D. and Sharma, J. J. 1997. Integrated Weed Management Studies in Rajmash (Phaseolus vulgaris) under Dry Temperate High-hills. Indian Journal of Weed Science, 28: 8-10.
Rana, S. S. 2002. Evaluation of Promising herbicide Combinations for Weed Management in Rajmash under Dry Temperate Condition of Himachal Pradesh. Indian Journal of Weed Science, 34: 204-207.
Kumar, N. S. 2009. Effect of Plant Density and Weed management practices on production Potential of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Indian Journal of Agricultural Research, 43: 57-60.
Mondal, D. C., Hossain, A. and Duray, B. 2005. Chemical control in onion (Allium sepa L.) under lateritic belt of West Bengal. Indian Journal of Weed Science, 37: 281-282.
Warade, A. D., Gonge, V. S. Jog-Dande, N. D., Ingole, P. G. and Karunakar. A. P. 2006. Integrated weed management in onion. Indian Journal of Weed Science, 38: 92-95.
Hooda, I. S. and Agrawal, S. K. 1995. Response of weeds to levels of irrigation, weed control and fertility in wheat. British Crop Protection Conference: weeds. Proceedings of International Conference, Brighton, U. K. 20-23 November 1995. 2: 679-682.
Das, T. K. and Yaduraju, N. T. 1999. Effect of weed competition on growth, nutrient uptake and yield of wheat as affected by irrigation and fertilizers. Journal of Agricultural Science, 133(1): 45-51.
Gupta, O. P. 2011. Modern Weed Management with special reference to agriculture in the tropics and sub tropics (4th eds.). pp. 615. Agrobios (India), Jodhpur, India.
Khaliq, A., Hussain, M., Matloob, A., Tanveer, A., Zamir, S. I., Afzal, I. and Aslam, F. 2014. Weed growth, herbicide efficacy indices, crop growth and yield of wheat are modified by herbicide and cultivar interaction. Pakistan Journal Weed Science Research, 20(1): 91-109.
Mirjha, P. R., Prasad, S. K., Singh Ram, M. K., Hari, P., Patel, S. and Majumdar, M. 2013. Effect of weed control measures on weeds, nodulation, growth and yield of mungbean (Vigna radiata). Indian Journal of Agronomy, 58(4): 615-617.
Patel, B. D., Patel, V. J., Meisuriya, M. I. and Patel, R. B. 2007. Influence of FYM, molybdenum and weed management practice on nodulation, root growth and yield of chickpea. Journal of Food Legumes, 21(4): 234-236.
Anderson, A., Baldock, J. A., Rogers, S. L., Bellotti, W. and Gill, G. 2004. Influence of chlorsulfuron on rhizobial growth, nodule formation and nitrogen fixation with chickpea. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 55: 1059-1070.
Khan, M. S., Zaidi, A. and Wani, P. A. 2006. Role of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms in sustainable agriculture-A review. Journal of Agronomy and Sustainable Development, 27: 29-43.
Cork, D. J. and Krueger, J. P. 1991. Microbial transformation of herbicides and pesticides. Advanced Applied Microbiology, 36: 1-66.
Vaziritabar. Y., Vaziritabar, Y., Paknejad, F., Golzardi, F. and Tafty, S. F. 2014. Investigation of bio-fertilizer and selective herbicides application on control of Chenopodium album and Amaranthus retroflexus in soybean. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Science, 4(6): 269-277.
Kamel, M. S., Abdel-Raouf, M. S., Mahmoud, E. A. and Amer, S. 1983. Response of two maize varieties to different plant densities in relation to weed control treatments. Annals of Agricultural Science, 19: 79-93.
Hodgson, G. L. and Blackman, G. E. 2005. An Analysis of the Influence of Plant Density on the Growth of Vicia faba. Journal of Experimental Botany, 48: 147-165.
Abdellatif, Y. I. 2008. Effect of Seed Size and Plant Spacing on Yield and Yield Components of Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Science, 4(2): 146-148.
Hadi, H., Ghassemi-Golezani, K., Khoei, F. R., Valizadeh, M. and Shakiba, M. R. 2006. Response of Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Different levels of shade. Journal of Agronomy, 5: 595-599.
Yadav, R. P., Shrivastava, U. K. and Dwivedi, S. C. 1999. Comparative efficiency of herbicides in controlling Asphodelus tenuifolius and other weeds in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Indian Journal of Agronomy, 44: 151-155.
Ayaz, S., McNeil, D. L., McKenzie, B. A. and Hill, G. D. 2001. Density and sowing depth effects on yield components of grain legumes. Proceeding of Agronomy Society, New Zealand, 29: 9-15.
Sunday, O. and Udensi, E. 2013. Evaluation of Pre-Emergence Herbicides for Weed Control in Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] in a Forest -Savanna Transition Zone. American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 3: 767-779.
Madukwe, D. K., Ogbuehi, H. C. and Onuh, M. O. 2012. Effects of Weed Control Methods on the Growth and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) under Rain-Fed Conditions of Owerri. American-Eurasian Journal Agriculture and Environmental Science, 11: 1426-1430.
Meseret, N., Tadese, B. and Teshome, B. 2008. Effect of frequency and time of hand weeding in haricot bean production at Bako. Ethiopian Journal of Weed Management, 2: 59-69.
Kumar, S., Angiras, N. N. and Singh, R. 2006. Effect of planting and weed control methods on weed growth and seed yield of Black gram. Indian Journal of Weed Science, 38: 73-76.
Roslon, E. and Fogelfors, H. 2003. Crop and weed growth in a sequence of spring barley and winter wheat crops established together from a spring sowing (relay cropping). Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 189: 185–190.
Mathew, G. and Sreenivasan, E. 1998. Effect of weed control methods on yield and economics of rain-fed and rice fallow summer cowpea. Madras Agriculture Journal, 85: 50–52.
Rao, N. K. and Shahid, M. 2011. Potential of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] and guar [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.] as alternative forage legumes for the United Arab Emirates. Emirates Journal of Food Agriculture, 23(2): 147-156.
Tijani, E. H. 2001. Influence of intra row spacing and weeding regime on the performance of cowpea. Nigerian Journal of Weed Science, 14: 11-15.
Mizan, A., Sharma, J. J. and Gebremedhin, W. 2009. Estimation of Critical Period of Weed-Crop Competition and yield Loss in Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Ethiopian Journal of Weed Management, 3(1) 39-53.
Ishaya, D. B., Tunku, P. and Kuchinda, N. C. 2008. Evaluation of some weed control treatments for long season weed control in maize under zero and minimum tillage at Samaru in Nigeria. Crop Protection, 27: 1047-1051.
Joseph, A., Osipitan, A. O., Segun, T. L., Raphael, O. A. and Stephen, O. A. 2014. Growth and Yield Performance of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) as Influenced by Row-Spacing and Period of Weed Interference in South-West Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Science, 4: 1916-1926.
Ismaila, U., Kolo, M. G. M. and Gbanguba, U. A. 2011. Efficacy and Profitability of Some Weed Control Practices in Upland Rice (Oryza sativa L.). American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 1: 174-186.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186