An Investigation into the Determination of Brand Personality for a Telecommunications Company as Perceived by the Voice Services Customers: A Case Study of Powertel Communications
International Journal of Management and Fuzzy Systems
Volume 2, Issue 3, June 2016, Pages: 22-30
Received: Aug. 31, 2016;
Accepted: Oct. 20, 2016;
Published: Dec. 12, 2016
Views 3027 Downloads 49
Bongani Ngwenya, Department of Postgraduate Studies, Faculty of Business, Solusi University, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe
Admire R. Nyagura, Department of Postgraduate Studies, Faculty of Business, Solusi University, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe
This research empirically measured the brand personality for Powertel Communications by using the five-dimension Brand Personality Scale developed by Aaker as a framework. Results of this investigation were obtained through an online questionnaire directed to Powertel customers whose response yielded 166 responses from a population of 264 customers. Reliability analysis using Cronbach alpha coefficient of the measurement model and the structural model provided evidence that the ‘sincerity’ dimension proposed by Aaker was not reliable. The reliability and validity test of the questionnaire resulted in the omission of the “sincerity” dimension. The T-Test showed respondent’s ideas about the personality of Powertel and they believed Powertel’s personality dimensions are: “excitement”, “competence” and “sophistication”. The respondents however, were not agreeing on the “rugged” dimension which showed that Powertel is not a rugged brand. The personality dimension “competence” was the most dominant personality amongst the customers followed by “excitement”. Some demographic effects on the personality perceptions were also analysed and found to be significant across all the dimensions except the rugged dimension. Finally, the hypothesis about the correlation between the customer traits and the customers’ perception on the brand personality for Powertel was tested and the results showed that there was significant correlation to justify Aaker’s model. The study makes the following recommendations: that Powertel envisages the philosophy of brand personality by modelling advertisements, marketing actions and price in a way that is congruent with the personalities of its target customers; that Powertel focusses more on innovations, value added services and promotions of its product portfolio. This is mainly because its customers largely perceive the company as competent and exciting as a result innovations and value added services will enhance the “competence” attribute whilst promotion will enhance the “exciting” attribute thus further strengthening the company’s competitive advantage, and finally, that Powertel reposition itself in a personality which distinctively differentiate itself from other competitors. The basis for differentiation need may come from the fact that at least 30% of the customers according to the research regard Powertel services as similar to competitors and at least 50% of the customers who are particular about branded products consider quality when making purchase decisions.
Admire R. Nyagura,
An Investigation into the Determination of Brand Personality for a Telecommunications Company as Perceived by the Voice Services Customers: A Case Study of Powertel Communications, International Journal of Management and Fuzzy Systems.
Vol. 2, No. 3,
2016, pp. 22-30.
Aaker, J. L. & Fournier, S. (2005). A brand as a character, a partner and a person: The perspectives on the question of brand personality. Advances in Consumer Research, 2 (3), 391-395.
Azoulay, A. & Kapferer, J-N. (2008). Do brand personality scales really measure brand personality? Brand Management. 11(2), 143-155.
Beldona S. & Wysong S. (2007) “Putting the “brand” back into store brands: an exploratory examination of store brands and brand personality”, Journal of Product & Brand Management, pp 226–235.
Belk, Russell W. (2007), "Assessing the Effects of Visable Consumption on Impression Formation," Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 5, ed. H. Keith Hunt, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 39- 47. Bennett, R., & Rundle-Thiele, S. A comparison of attitudinal loyalty measurement.
Clarke, T., & Costall, A. (2007). The emotional connotations of color: a qualitative investigation. Color Research and Application, 33 (5), 406–410.
Daniel (2011). Psychology 2nd Ed. 41 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10010: Worth Publishers. p. 468. ISBN 1-4292-3719-8
Fraser, T., & Banks, A. (2004). Designer’s colour manual: The complete guide to colour theory and application. San Francisco: Chronicle Books.
Goldberg, L. R., Sweeney, D., Merenda, P. F. and Hughes, J. E. (2006). “Demographic variables and personality: the effects of gender, age, education, and ethnic/racial status on self-descriptions of personality attributes”. Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 24, pp. 393-403.
Graeff, T. R. (2008). Consumption Situations and the Effects of Brand Image on Consumers‟ Brand Evaluations. Psychology & Marketing, 14 (1), 49-70.
Grimm, P. E. (2005). Ab components‟ impact on brand preference. Journal of Business Research, 58 (4), 508–517. doi:10.1016/S0148-2963(03)00141-3.
 Grohmann, B. (2008). “Gender dimensions of brand personality”. Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. XLVI (February), pp. 105–119.
 Guthrie, M. and H.-S. K. a. J. Jung (2008). "The effects of facial image and cosmetic usage on perceptions of brand personality." Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management Decision 12: 1361-2026.
Hawkins, D. I., Best, R. J. and Coney, K. A. (2006), Consumer Behaviour: Building Marketing Strategy, 8th edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
Heere, B. (2010). A New Approach to Measure Perceived Brand Personality Associations Among Consumers. Sport Marketing Quarterly. 19(1), 17-24.
Henry, P. (2008), “Systematic variation in purchase orientations across social classes”. Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 19 No. 5, pp. 424-38.
Kleine, Susan S., Robert E III Kleine, and Chris T. Allen (2006), “How is a Possession “Me” or “Not Me”? Characterizing Types and Antecedent of Material Possession Attachment,” Journal of Consumer Research, 22 (3), 327-343.
Kotler, P., Wong, V., Saunders, J. & Armstrong, G. (2005). Principles of Marketing. Fourth European edition. Pearson Education Limited. Harlow, England.
Lee, E. M. (2005). “Congruence between brand personality and self-image, and the mediating roles of satisfaction and consumer-brand relationship on brand loyalty”. Asia Pacific Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 6, pp. 39-45.
McCrae, R. R., and Costa, P. T., Jr. (2008). The Five-Factor Theory of personality. In: O. P. John, R. W. Robins, and L. A. Pervin (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (3rd ed.). New York: Guilford.
Rajagopal (2006) Insights from research Brand excellence: measuring the impact of advertising and brand personality on buying decisions. MEASURING BUSINESS EXCELLENCE
Smit, Edith, Fred Bronner, and Maarten Tolboom (2007), "Brand relationship quality and its value for personal contact", Journal of Business Research, 60 (6), 627-33.
Sung, Y. and S. F. Tinkham (2005). "Brand personality structures in the United States and Korea: Common and culture-specific factors." Journal of Consumer Psychology 15(4): 334-350.
Yee, W. F., and Sidek, Y. (2008). “Influence of brand loyalty on consumer sportswear”. International Journal of Economics and Management. Vol. 2 No.2, pp. 221–236.