Prevalence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Associated Risk Factors in Prisons of Gamo Goffa Zone, South Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study
American Journal of Health Research
Volume 2, Issue 5, September 2014, Pages: 291-297
Received: Sep. 21, 2014; Accepted: Sep. 27, 2014; Published: Oct. 10, 2014
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Authors
Zerihun Zerdo, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Medicine and Health Science, Arbaminch University, Arbaminch, Ethiopia
Girmay Medhin, Akililu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Abeba University, Addis Abeba, EthiopiaAkililu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Abeba University, Addis Abeba, Ethiopia
Adane Worku, Akililu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Abeba University, Addis Abeba, Ethiopia
Gobena Ameni, Akililu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Abeba University, Addis Abeba, Ethiopia
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Abstract
Background: There is limited information regarding tuberculosis (TB) in prisons in Ethiopia. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis in prisons and assess associated risk factors among inmates suspected for pulmonary tuberculosis in Gamo Goffa Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used to recruit 124 inmates in Gamo Goffa Zone, Southern Ethiopia, between November 1 and March 3, 2011. During the study period there were a total of 3817 prisoners in the three prisons of the study Zone. Inmates were eligible for the study if they had cough for more than or equal to two weeks during the study period. Structured questionnaire was used to collect data on risk factors of pulmonary tuberculosis. Sputum samples were collected from suspected inmates and examined using sputum smear microscopy and culture on Lowenstein-Jensen media. Results: The prevalence of pulmonary TB among inmates who had cough for at least 2-weeks was 19.4% (24/124). Extrapolation of the finding implies that there were 629 pulmonary tuberculosis cases during the survey period per 100,000 prisoners. Smoking, previous history of treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis, poor ventilation of the cell, cough for more than four weeks before diagnosis and decreased body mass index were significantly associated with increased odds of being positive for pulmonary tuberculosis. Conclusion: The estimated prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis was about 8 folds higher than its counterpart in the community which was in line with the findings of previous studies in Ethiopia. This implies the need for tuberculosis control measures to be targeted on factors driving tuberculosis in southern Ethiopia: improving ventilation status of cells in prisons, monitoring nutritional status of prisoners and restricting access to smoking.
Keywords
Prevalence, Risk Factors, Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Prison, Ethiopia
To cite this article
Zerihun Zerdo, Girmay Medhin, Adane Worku, Gobena Ameni, Prevalence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Associated Risk Factors in Prisons of Gamo Goffa Zone, South Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study, American Journal of Health Research. Vol. 2, No. 5, 2014, pp. 291-297. doi: 10.11648/j.ajhr.20140205.21
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