Interprofessional Collaboration and Its Impact on “Climate Change”
American Journal of Health Research
Volume 4, Issue 2-1, March 2016, Pages: 4-17
Received: May 1, 2015; Accepted: Jun. 10, 2015; Published: Feb. 29, 2016
Views 3312      Downloads 84
Stephanie L. Sanders, The Office of Institutional Equity and Diversity, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, USA
Article Tools
Follow on us
In recent years, the number of Black and Latino/a students enrolling in institutions of higher education have increased significantly. However, when compared to their White counterparts, persistence rates are much lower. Past research has documented both the historical and contemporary issues that Students of Color face at Predominantly White Institutions (PWI). Now more than ever this body of literature has focused on campus climate and the role race has on the educational experience. The current study examines the impact of stereotype threat and racial microaggressions on African American students attending a large mid-western PWI. This study also examines how students cope with and respond to a climate filled with threats, assaults and microaggressions in academic and social spaces.
Stereotype Threat, Microaggressions, Urban, Higher Education, Critical Race Theory
To cite this article
Stephanie L. Sanders, Interprofessional Collaboration and Its Impact on “Climate Change”, American Journal of Health Research. Special Issue: Interprofessional Education and Collaboration is a Call for Improvement Across the Board in the Health Sciences. Vol. 4, No. 2-1, 2016, pp. 4-17. doi: 10.11648/j.ajhr.s.2016040201.12
Allen, W. (1992). The color of success: African-American college student outcomes at predominantly white and historically black public colleges and universities. Harvard Educational Review, 62, 26-44.
American Council on Education (2011). Minorities in higher education. Twenty-fourth status report. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.
Ancis, J., Sedlacek, W., & Mohr, J. (2000). Student perceptions of campus culture climate by race. Journal of Counseling and Development, 78(2), 180-185.
Anglin, D.M., Philip, M.A., Link, B.G., & Phelan J.C. (2008). Racial differences in beliefs about the effectiveness and necessity of mental health treatment. American Journal of Community Psychology, 42, 17-24.
Aronson, J. (2004). The threat of stereotype. Educational Leadership. 62(3), 14-19.
Astin, A. (1984). Student involvement: A developmental theory for higher education. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25, 297-308.
Banks, C. (2009). Black women undergraduates, cultural capital, and college success. New York: Peter Lang.
Bell, D. (1980). Brown v. Board of Education and the interest-convergence dilemma. Harvard Law Review, 93(3), 518-533.
Bell, D. (1995a). Serving two masters: Integration ideals and client interests in school desegregation litigation. In K. Crenshaw, N. Gotanda, G. Peller, and K. Thomas (Eds.), Critical race theory: The key writings that formed the movement (pp. 5-19). New York: The New Press.
Bell, D. (1995b). Racial realism. In K. Crenshaw, N. Gotanda, G. Peller, and K. Thomas (Eds.), Critical race theory: The key writings that formed the movement (pp. 302312). New York: The New Press.
Bell, D. (2000). Brown v. Board of Education: Forty-five years after the fact. Ohio Northern Law Review, 26, 1-171.
Bell, D. (2004). The potential value of losing Brown v. Board. In J. Anderson and D. Byrne (Eds.), The unfinished agenda of Brown v. Board of Education (pp. 63-76). Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley.
Bernal, D. (2002). Critical race theory, Latino critical theory, and critical raced-gendered epistemologies: Recognizing students of color as holders and creators of knowledge. Qualitative Inquiry, 8, 105-126.
Bogdan, R., & Biklen, S. (2007). Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theories and methods. New York: Pearson.
Booker, K. (2007). Percept of classroom belongingness among African American college students. College Student Journal, 41(1), 178-186.
Boykin, A., & Jones, J. (2004). The psychological evolution of black children’s education since Brown. In J. Anderson and D. Byrne (Eds.), The unfinished agenda of Brown v. Board of Education (pp. 137-150). Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley.
Callan, P., Finney, J., Kirst, M., Usdan, M., & Venezia, A. (2006). Claiming common ground: State policymaking for improving college readiness and success. In M.
Chen, P., Ingram, T., & Davis, L. (2007). Engaging African American students: Comparing student engagement and student satisfaction at historically black colleges and universities and their self-identified predominantly white peer institutions. Paper presented at the 32nd Annual Conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Louisville, KY.
Chickering, A., & Gamson, Z. (1987). Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. American Association for Higher Education Bulletin, 3(7), 3-7.
Clarke, P. G. (2006). What would a theory of interprofessional education look like? Some suggestions for developing a theoretical framework for teamwork training. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 20(6), 577–589.
Crenshaw, K. (1989). Demarginalizing the intersection of race and sex: A black feminist critique of antidiscrimination doctrine, feminist theory, and antiracist politics. University of Chicago Legal Forum, 139-167.
Crenshaw, K. (1995). Mapping the margins: Intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color. In K. Crenshaw, N. Gotanda, G. Peller, and K. Thomas (Eds.), Critical race theory: The key writings that formed the movement (pp. 357-383). New York: The New Press.
Creswell, J. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches, (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.
D'Augelli, A., & Hershberger, S. (1993). African American undergraduates on a predominantly white campus: Academic factors, social networks, and campus climate. The Journal of Negro Education, 62(1), 67-81.
Davis, M., Dias-Bowie, Y., Greenberg, K., Klukken, G., Pollio, H., Thomas, S., & Thompson, C. (2004). "A fly in the buttermilk": Descriptions of university life by successful black undergraduate students at a predominantly white southeastern university. The Journal of Higher Education, 75(4), 420-445.
DeCuir, J., & Dixson, A. (2004). So when it comes out, they aren’t surprised that it is there: Using critical race theory as a tool of analysis of race and racism in education. Educational Researcher, 33, 26-31.
Delgado, R., & Stefancic, J. (2001). Critical race theory: An introduction. New York: New York University Press.
Dixson, A., & Rousseau, C. (2005). And we are still not saved: Critical race theory in education ten years later. In A. Dixon and C. Rousseau (Eds.), Critical race theory in education: All God's children got a song (pp. 31-54). New York: Routledge.
Eimers, M., & Pike, G. (1997). Minority and nonminority adjustment to college:
Differences or similarities. Research in Higher Education, 38(1), 77-97.
Feagin, J., Vera, H., & Imani, N. (1996). The agony of education: Black students at white colleges and universities. New York: Routledge.
Fleming, J. (1984). Blacks in college. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Frank, A. (2003). If they come, we should listen: African American education majors' perception of a predominantly white university experience. Teaching and Teacher Education, 19, 697-717.
Gillborn, D. (2005) Education policy as an act of white supremacy: whiteness, critical race theory, and education reform. Journal of Education Policy, 20(4), 485-505.
Glesne, C. (2006). Becoming qualitative researchers: An introduction (3rd ed.). New York: Pearson.|
Gossett, B., Cuyjet, M., & Cockriel, I. (1998). African Americans' perception of marginality in the campus culture. College Student Journal, 32(1), 22-32.
Hammen, C. (2005). Stress and depression. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
Harper, S., & Hurtado, S. (2007). Nine themes in campus racial climates and implications for institutional transformation. New Directions for Student Services, 120, 7–24.
Heisserer, D., & Parette, P. (2002). Advising at-risk students in college and university settings. College Student Journal. 36(1), 69-83).
Hurtado, S. (1992). The campus racial climate: Contexts of conflicts. The Journal of Higher Education, 63(5), 539-569.
Hurtado, S., Milem, J., Clayton-Pedersen, A., & Allen, W.R. (1998). Enhancing campus climates for racial/ethnic diversity through educational policy and practice. The Review of Higher Education. 20th Anniversary Edition, 21(3).
Inwood, J., & Yarbrough, I. (2010). Racialized places, racialized bodies: The impact of racialization on individual and place identities. GeoJournal, 75(2), 299-301.
Iverson, S. (2007). Camouflaging power and privilege: A critical race analysis of university diversity policies. Educational Administration Quarterly, 43, 586-611.
Kuh, G., Kinzie, J., Buckley, J., Bridges, B., & Hayek, J. (2006). What matters to student success: A review of the literature. Final report for the National Postsecondary Education Cooperative and National Center for Educational Statistics. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Center for Postsecondary Research.
Ladson-Billings, G. (1998). Just what is critical race theory and what's it doing in a nice field like education. Qualitative Studies in Education, 11(1), 7-24.
Ladson-Billings, G. (2000). Racialized discourses and ethnic epistemologies. In N. Denzin and Y. Lincoln (Eds.), The sage handbook of qualitative research (2nd ed., pp. 257-277). Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Ladson-Billings, G., & Tate, W. (1995). Toward a critical race theory of education. Teachers College Record, 97(1), 47-68.
Landry, C. (2003). Retention of women and people of color: Unique challenges and institutional responses. Journal of College Student Retention, 4(1), 1-13.
Leach, J., & Hall, J. (2011). A city-wide approach to cross-boundary working with students with mental health needs. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 25(2), 138-144.
Lynn, M., & Parker, L. (2006). Critical race studies in education: Examining a decade of research on U.S. schools. The Urban Review, 38(4), 257-290.
Marshall, C., & Rossman, G. (2011). Designing qualitative research (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Matsuda, M., Lawrence, C., Delgado, R., & Crenshaw, K. (1993). Words that wound: Critical race theory, assaultive speech, and the first amendment. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
McPherson and M. Schapiro (Eds.), College access: Opportunity or privilege (pp. 143-166). New York: The College Board.
Milner, R. (2008a). Disrupting deficit notions of difference: Counter-narratives of teacher and community in urban education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(6), 1573-1598.
Milner, R. (2008b). Critical race theory and interest convergence as analytic tools in teacher education policies and practices. Journal of Teacher Education, 59(4), 332-346.
Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenological research methods. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
National Center for Education Statistics (2009). College Navigator. Retrieved January 5, 2011, from The Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, Washington, DC. Website:
Parker, L. (1998). Race is race ain’t: An exploration of the utility of critical race theory in qualitative research in education. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 11(1), 43-55.
Parker, L., Deyhle, D., & Villenas, S. (1999). Race is, race isn’t: Critical race theory and qualitative studies in education. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Parker, L., & Lynn, M. (2002). What's race got to do with it? Critical race theory's conflicts with and connections to qualitative research methodology and epistemology. Qualitative Inquiry, 8, 7-22.
Pascarella, E., & Terenzini, P. (1991). How college affects students: Findings and insights from twenty years of research. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Patton, M. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Patton, L., McEwen, M., Rendón, L., & Howard-Hamilton, M. (2007). Critical race perspectives on theory in student affairs. New Directions for Student Services, 2007(120), 39-53.
Pierce, C., Carew, J., Pierce-Gonzalez, D., & Willis, D. (1978). An experiment in racism: TV commercials. In C. Pierce (Ed.), Television and education (pp. 62–88). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Sedlacek, W. (1987). Black students on white campuses: 20 years of research. Journal of College Student Development, 40, 538-550.
Secker, J., & Hill, K. (2001). Broadening the partnerships: Experiences of working across community agencies. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 15(4), 341–350.
Solórzano, D., Ceja, M., & Yosso, T. (2001). Critical race theory, racial microaggressions, and campus racial climate: The experiences of African American college students. Journal of Negro Education, 69(1), 60-73.
Solórzano D., & Villalpando, O. (1998). Critical race theory: Marginality and the experiences of students of color in higher education. In C. Torres and T. Mitchell (Eds.), Sociology of education: Emerging perspectives (pp. 211-224). Albany: State University of New York Press.
Solórzano, D., & Yosso, T. (2002). Critical race methodology: Counter-storytelling as an analytical framework for education research. Qualitative Inquiry, 8, 23-44.
Steele, C. (1992). Race and the schooling of black Americans. Atlantic Monthly, 68-78.
Steele, C. (1997). A threat in the air: How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance. American Psychologist, 52(6), 613-629.
Steele, C. (1999). Thin ice: Stereotype threat and black college students. The Atlantic Monthly, 284(2), 44-54.
Steele, C. (2003). Stereotype threat and African-American student achievement. In T. Perry, C. Steele, and A. Hilliard (Eds.), Young, gifted, and black: Promoting high achievement among African-American students (pp. 109-130). Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
Steele, C., & Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African-Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 797–811.
Steele, C., & Aronson, J. (2004). Stereotype threat does not live by Steele and Aronson (1995) alone. American Psychologist, 59(1), 47-48.
Suarez-Balcazar, Y., Orellana-Damacela, L., Portillo, N., Rowan, J., & Andrews-Guillen, C. (2003). Experiences of differential treatment among college students of color. The Journal of Higher Education, 74(4), 428-444.
Sue, D.W. (2010). Microaggressions in everyday life. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Sue, D., Capodilupo, C., Torino, G., Bucceri, J., Holder, A., Nadal, K., & Esquilin, M. (2007). Racial microaggressions in everyday life: Implications for clinical practice. American Psychologist, 62(4), 271-286.
Tate, W. (1997). Critical race theory and education: History, theory and implications. In M. Apple (Ed.), Review of research in education (Vol. 22, pp. 195-250). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.
Taylor, E. (2000). Critical race theory and interest convergence in the backlash against affirmative action: Washington State and initiative 200. Teachers College Record, 102, 539-561.
Taylor, E., & Olswang, S. (1997). Crossing the color line: African American and predominantly white universities. College Student Journal, 31(1), 11-18.
Terenzini, P., Cabrera, A., & Bernal, E. (2001). Swimming against the tide: The poor in American higher education (College Board Research Report No. No. 2001-3). New York: The College Board.
Tinto, V. (1975). Dropouts from higher education: A theoretical synthesis of recent research. Review of Educational Research, 45(1), 89-125.
Tinto, V. (1993). Leaving college: Rethinking the causes and cures of student attrition (2nd ed.) Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Torres, L., Driscoll, M. W., & Burrow, A. L. (2010). Racial microaggressions and psychological functioning among highly achieving African-Americans: A mixed-methods approach. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 29(10), 1074-1099.
Tuitt, F., & Carter, D. (2008). Negotiating atmospheric threats and racial assaults in predominantly white educational institutions. Journal of Public Management & Social Policy. 14(2), 51-68.
Venezia, A., Callan, P., Finney, J., Kirst, M., & Usdan, M. (2005). The governance divide: A report on a four-state study on improving college readiness and success. Report #05-3, National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education.
Vogel, D., Wade, N., & Hackler, A. (2007). Perceived public stigma and the willingness to seek counseling: The mediating roles of self-stigma and attitudes toward counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54(1), 40-50.
Vontress, C. E., & Epp, L. R. (1997). Historical hostility in the African American client: Implications for counseling. Journal of Multicultural Counseling & Development, 25(3), 170.
Wang, P., Lane, M., Olfson, M., Pincus, H.,Wells, K., & Kessler, R. (2005). Twelve-month use of mental health service in the United States. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 629–640.
Williams, A., & Justice, M. (2010). Attitudes of African American males regarding counseling in four Texas universities. Education, 131(1), 158-168.
Williamson, J. (1999). In defense of themselves: The black student struggle for success and recognition at predominantly white colleges and universities. The Journal of Negro Education, 68(1), 92-105.
Yosso, T. (2005). Whose culture has capital? A critical race theory discussion of community cultural wealth. Race ethnicity and education, 8(1), 69-91.
Yosso, T., Parker, L., Solórzano, D., & Lynn, M. (2004). From Jim Crow to affirmative action and back again: A critical race discussion of racialized rationale and access to higher education. American Educational Research Association, 28, 1-25.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186